Filtering by Subject: Geochemistry

Reykjanes Peninsula's historical eruptions: SO2 emissions and future hazard implications

Alberto Caracciolo, Eniko Bali, Eemu Ranta, et al.

Published: 2023-11-23
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Volcanology

Exposure to volcanic SO2 can have adverse effects on human health, with severe respiratory disorders documented on the short- and long-term timescale. Here, we use melt inclusion (MI) and groundmass glass data to calculate syn-eruptive SO2 emission potentials across the Reykjanes peninsula (RP), the most populated area of Iceland that has recently undergone magmatic reactivation with the [...]

Plagioclase-saturated melt hygrothermobarometry and plagioclase-melt equilibria using machine learning

Kyra S. Cutler, Mike Cassidy, Jon Blundy

Published: 2023-11-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Compositions of plagioclase-melt pairs are commonly used to constrain temperatures (T), water contents (H2O) and pressures (P) of pre-eruptive magma storage. However, previous plagioclase-based thermometers, hygrometers, and barometers can have significant uncertainties, mainly resulting from the lack of error propagation of independently-constrained input variables (i.e., T/ H2O/P), leading to [...]

Changes in mesophotic carbonate-platform export across the end of the last glacial cycle (Saya de Malha Bank, western Indian Ocean)

Or M. Bialik, Christian Betzler, Juan Carlos Braga Alarcón, et al.

Published: 2023-11-07
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Geochemistry, Natural Resources and Conservation, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Paleobiology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

The export of neritic material from the top of carbonate platforms is a key process in the construction of their slopes. However, our knowledge of the supply pattern of materials from platforms is dominantly based on platforms lying in the euphotic zone during the present sea-level highstand. This is a somewhat biased perspective as through geological time not all platforms were euphotic. The [...]

Petrological Evolution and Mass Redistribution in Basaltic Fault Zones: An Example from the Faroe Islands, North Atlantic Igneous Province

Bob Bamberg, Marc Reichow, Richard Walker, et al.

Published: 2023-11-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Fault rock petrology exerts an important control on the permeability structure and mechanical properties of fault zones. Slip-related deformation on upper-crustal faults in basaltic rocks is closely associated with fluid-rock interaction, altering the distribution of physical properties within the fault. Here we present quantitative descriptions of the geochemical and petrological evolution of [...]

PyIRoGlass: An Open-Source, Bayesian MCMC Algorithm for Fitting Baselines to FTIR Spectra of Basaltic-Andesitic Glasses

Sarah Christine Shi, William Henry Towbin, Terry Plank, et al.

Published: 2023-11-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Quantifying volatile concentrations in magmas is critical for understanding magma storage, phase equilibria, and eruption processes. We present PyIRoGlass, an open-source Python package for quantifying H$_2$O and CO$_2$ species concentrations in the transmission FTIR spectra of basaltic to andesitic glasses. We leverage a database of naturally degassed melt inclusions and back-arc basin basalts [...]

Petrographic and geochemical evidence for a complex magmatic plumbing system beneath Bagana volcano, Papua New Guinea

Joshua Robert Brown, Iris Buisman, Maria Paula Castellanos Melendez, et al.

Published: 2023-10-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Volcanology

Bagana is a persistently active stratovolcano located on Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea. Characteristic activity consists of prolonged lava effusion over months to years, with occasional shifts to explosive vulcanian or subplinian eruptions which threaten surrounding communities. Satellite observations have shown that Bagana is a major SO2 emitter, particularly during eruptive intervals. [...]

Sediment supply controls on Early Eocene delta sequences (South Pyrenean Foreland Basin; Spain)

Romain Vaucher, Claire Musajo, Jorge E. Spangenberg, et al.

Published: 2023-10-13
Subjects: Climate, Geochemistry, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Sediment supply variations are often overlooked when interpreting depositional sequences, which tend to emphasize changes in accommodation. Here, we focus on a temporally well-constrained shallow-marine succession in the South Pyrenean Foreland Basin to test the control of sediment supply on the development of deltaic sequences during the Early Eocene. We analyzed the paleoenvironmental record [...]

The Heavy Mineral Map of Australia Project: A Novel, Rapid, Automated Quantitative Mineralogy Workflow

Alexander Thomas Walker, Brent McInnes, Patrice de Caritat, et al.

Published: 2023-10-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Heavy Mineral Map of Australia (HMMA) is the world’s first project aiming to define a continental heavy mineral baseline. It utilises a novel sample processing workflow and automated mineralogy techniques to rapidly generate and analyse mineralogical data from 1315 archived samples of catchment outlet sediments collected from 1186 catchments across the Australian continent. Heavy [...]

Coral geochemical response to uplift in the aftermath of the 2005 Nias-Simeulue earthquake

Sindia M. Sosdian, Michael Gagan, Danny H. Natawidjaja, et al.

Published: 2023-10-07
Subjects: Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Natural Resources and Conservation, Tectonics and Structure

On 28 March 2005, the Indonesian islands of Nias and Simeulue experienced a powerful Mw 8.6 earthquake and widespread co-seismic uplift and subsidence. In areas of coastal uplift (up to ~2.8 m), fringing reef coral communities were killed by exposure, while deeper corals that survived were subjected to habitats with altered runoff, sediment and nutrient regimes. Here we present time-series [...]

A shift in the Sr isotopic composition of the magmatic source triggering 2019 paroxysmal eruptions at Stromboli Volcano

Christian J. Renggli, Joachim Krause, Felix Genske, et al.

Published: 2023-10-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The persistent volcanic activity of Stromboli Volcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy, is interrupted by paroxysmal eruptions on a decadal interval. In 2019, two strong paroxysms on July 3rd and August 28th, ended a more than a decade long period of regular strombolian activity. During normal strombolian activity the volcano erupts highly porphyritic scoria and lava (HP)20 with a shoshonitic basalt [...]

Novel observations of East Asian Summer Monsoon evolution during Glacial Termination II from Lake Suigetsu, Japan

Charlie Rex, Richard Staff, Jaime Toney, et al.

Published: 2023-10-04
Subjects: Climate, Geochemistry

Glacial terminations offer a unique opportunity to examine how the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) responds to rapid increases in global temperature and accompanying abrupt climatic reorganisation. Reconstructions from contrasting glacial terminations with differently evolving boundary conditions are of particular value to our understanding of deglacial EASM behaviours, e.g., Termination I (from [...]

Insights into deglacial East Asian Monsoon seasonality and inter-regional teleconnections from Lake Suigetsu, Japan

Charlie Rex, Richard Staff, Melanie Leng, et al.

Published: 2023-10-04
Subjects: Climate, Geochemistry

The past evolution of the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) was affected by remote climate processes. However, there is uncertainty surrounding these teleconnections and their impact on each seasonal EAM mode during periods of rapid global change. Here we use the unique biannual precipitation patterns of central Japan to reconstruct winter and summer EAM evolution during the last glacial termination [...]

The contemporary stable isotope hydrology of Lake Suigetsu and surrounding catchment (Japan) and its implications for sediment-derived palaeoclimate records

Charlie Rex, Jonathan Tyler, Kazuyoshi Nagaya, et al.

Published: 2023-10-03
Subjects: Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Hydrology, Meteorology

The Lake Suigetsu sediment cores exemplify a high-quality archive of palaeoclimatic change in East Asia during the past 150 ka. Robust interpretation of stable isotope-based proxy reconstructions from the Suigetsu cores can be aided by a greater understanding of the factors affecting the isotope composition of the lake and how it relates to that of precipitation. Here we use extended contemporary [...]

Combined genomic and imaging techniques show intense arsenic enrichment caused by detoxification in a microbial mat of the Dead Sea shore

Camille Thomas, Montserrat Filella, Danny Ionescu, et al.

Published: 2023-09-26
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Geochemistry, Paleobiology

Microbial mats and microbialites are essential tools for reconstructing early life and its environments. To better understand microbial trace element cycling, a microbial mat was collected from the sinkhole systems of the western shores of the Dead Sea, a dynamic environment exhibiting diverse extreme environments. Intense arsenic enrichment (up to 6.5 million times higher than current water [...]

Omnivariant Generalized Least Squares Regression: Theory, Geochronological Applications, and Making the Case for Reconciled Δ47 calibrations

Mathieu Daëron, Pieter Vermeesch

Published: 2023-09-22
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry

Least-squares regression methods are mathematically powerful, conceptually and computationally simple, and widely used in many fields. However, none of the commonly-used flavors of least-squares regression, such as York regression or Generalized Least Squares (GLS), take into account the full set of covariances between all observed (x,y) values. Here we describe the Omnivariant Generalized Least [...]


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