Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Environmental Sciences

Standardised indices to monitor energy droughts

Sam Allen, Noelia Otero

Published: 2022-12-01
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability

To mitigate the effects of climate change, energy systems are becoming increasingly reliant on renewable energy sources. Since these energy sources are typically dependent on the prevailing weather, renewable energy systems are susceptible to shortages during certain weather conditions. As renewable sources become larger contributors to the energy mix, the risks associated with these shortages, [...]

Disentangling the effects of climate change and reoligotrophication on primary production in a large lake

Shubham Krishna, Hugo Nicolás Ulloa, Emile Barbe, et al.

Published: 2022-11-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences

Climate change and reduction in nutrient loads have significant effects on primary production and phytoplankton growth dynamics. Since in the last few decades in many regions, nutrients in lakes were reduced simultaneously as the climate changed. Yet, it remains unclear which of the two has impacted primary production the most. In this study, we couple the General Ocean Turbulence Model with the [...]

Technical note: A procedure to clean, decompose and aggregate time series

François Ritter

Published: 2022-11-17
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistics and Probability

Errors, gaps and outliers complicate and sometimes invalidate the analysis of time series. While most fields have developed their own strategy to clean the raw data, no generic procedure has been promoted to standardize the pre-processing. This lack of harmonization makes the inter-comparison of studies difficult, and leads to screening methods that can be arbitrary or case-specific. This study [...]

Too many streams and not enough time or money? Analytical depletion functions for streamflow depletion estimates

Qiang Li, Tom Gleeson, Sam Zipper, et al.

Published: 2022-11-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences

Groundwater pumping can cause streamflow depletion by reducing groundwater discharge to streams and/or inducing surface water infiltration. Analytical and numerical models are two standard methods used to predict streamflow depletion. Numerical models require extensive data and efforts to develop robust estimates, while analytical models are easy to implement with low data and experience [...]

The Importance of Internal Climate Variability in Climate Impact Projections

Kevin Schwarzwald, Nathan Lenssen

Published: 2022-10-27
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies

Uncertainty in climate projections is driven by three components: scenario uncertainty, inter-model uncertainty, and internal variability. Although socioeconomic climate impact studies increasingly take into account the first two components, little attention has been paid to the role of internal variability, though underestimating this uncertainty may lead to underestimating the socioeconomic [...]

Comparing detrital age spectra, and other geological distributions, using the Wasserstein distance

Alex George Lipp, Pieter Vermeesch

Published: 2022-10-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Distributional data such as detrital age populations or grain size distributions are common in the geological sciences. As analytical techniques become more sophisticated, increasingly large amounts of distributional data are being gathered. These advances require quantitative and objective methods, such as multidimensional scaling (MDS), to analyse large numbers of samples. Crucial to such [...]

Fisher Discriminant Analysis for Extracting Interpretable Phenological Information from Multivariate Time Series Data

Conor Doherty, Meagan S Mauter

Published: 2022-10-24
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Remote Sensing

For many applications in environmental remote sensing, the interpretation of a given measurement depends strongly on what time of year the measurement was taken. This is particularly the case for phenology studies concerned with identifying when plant developmental transitions occur, but it is also true for a wide range of applications including vegetation species classification, crop yield [...]

Air Quality-Related Equity Implications of U.S. Decarbonization Policy

Paul D Picciano, Sebastian David Eastham, Minghao Qiu, et al.

Published: 2022-10-22
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Sciences, Sustainability

We quantify potential air pollution exposure reductions resulting from U.S. federal carbon policy, and consider the implications of resulting health benefits for exposure disparities across racial/ethnic groups. We assess reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of 50% in 2030 relative to 2005 levels, comparable in magnitude to the 2022 Inflation Reduction Act. Using energy-economic scenarios [...]

Plastics Pollution and the Planetary Boundaries framework

Patricia Villarrubia-Gómez, Sarah Elisabeth Cornell, Bethanie Carney Almroth, et al.

Published: 2022-10-22
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies

Plastics are novel entities that have exceeded the planetary safe operating space due to extensive and resource-intensive production, uncontrolled environmental releases, and failure to control the chemicals within the materials. This paper examines evidence and discusses how plastics pollution affects Earth-system processes along the impact pathway from production, to release, to environmental [...]

Effect of mineral heterogeneity on fracture dissolution in carbonate-rich caprocks during subsurface CO2 injection

Mohammad Nooraiepour, Hossein Fazeli, Mohammad Masoudi, et al.

Published: 2022-10-03
Subjects: Environmental Sciences

Chemical interactions between CO2, brine, and caprock-forming minerals might lead to dissolution of the fractures present in the caprock of CO2 storage sites. One factor that can affect the chemically induced fracture alterations is mineral heterogeneity in the caprock. In this study, we investigate the effect of mineral heterogeneity on fracture dissolution of four carbonate-rich caprock [...]

Loop Current attenuation after the Mid-Pleistocene Transition contributes to Northern hemisphere cooling

Christian Hübscher, Dirk Nürnberg

Published: 2022-10-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

The beginning of the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT) ~920 ka BP marked the expansion of northern hemisphere ice shields and caused a significant climate change in NW Europe. The MPT ended with the establishment of the 100 kyr ice age cyclicity at ~640 ka BP, due to orbital eccentricity changes. Previous studies explained the northern hemisphere cooling by cooling of sea-surface temperatures, [...]

Geochemical mapping by unmixing alluvial sediments: An example from northern Australia

Alex George Lipp, Patrice de Caritat, Gareth G Roberts

Published: 2022-10-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Natural Resource Economics, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Water Resource Management

Alluvial sediments have long been used in geochemical surveys as their compositions are assumed to be representative of areas upstream. Overbank and floodplain sediments, in particular, are increasingly used for regional to continental-scale geochemical mapping. However, during downstream transport, sediments from heterogeneous source regions are carried away from their source regions and mixed. [...]

Marine Radiocarbon Calibration in Polar Regions: A Simple Approximate Approach using Marine20

Timothy J Heaton, Martin Butzin, Edouard Bard, et al.

Published: 2022-09-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Mathematics, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistics and Probability

The Marine20 radiocarbon (14C) age calibration curve, and all earlier marine radiocarbon calibration curves from the IntCal group, must be used extremely cautiously for the calibration of marine 14C samples from polar regions (outside ~ 40ºS – 40ºN) during glacial periods. Calibrating polar 14C marine samples from glacial periods against any Marine calibration curve (Marine20 or any earlier [...]

Emerging advanced oxidation processes for water and wastewater treatment – guidance for systematic future research –

Uwe Hübner, Stephanie Spahr, Holger Lutze, et al.

Published: 2022-09-09
Subjects: Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for water treatment are a growing research field with a large variety of different concepts and materials being tested at laboratory scale. However, only few concepts have been translated into pilot- and full-scale operation recently. One major concern are the inconsistent experimental approaches applied across different studies that impede identification, [...]

PubDAS: a PUBlic Distributed Acoustic Sensing datasets repository for geosciences

Zack J. Spica, Jonathan Ajo-Franklin, Greg Beroza, et al.

Published: 2022-09-07
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

During the past few years, Distributing Acoustic Sensing (DAS) has become an invaluable tool for recording high-fidelity seismic wavefields with great spatiotemporal resolutions. However, the considerable amount of data generated during DAS experiments limits their distribution with the broader scientific community. Such a bottleneck inherently slows down the pursuit of new scientific discoveries [...]

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