Filtering by Subject: Paleontology

Photogrammetry in ichnology: 3D model generation, visualisation, and data extraction

Jens N. Lallensack, Michael Buchwitz, Anthony Romilio

Published: 2020-11-19
Subjects: Paleontology

3D digitisation of surfaces became a standard procedure in ichnology in recent years. 3D models allow not only for the digital preservation of vulnerable ichnological records, but also for the illustration, qualitative description, and quantitative analysis of the fossils. Here we discuss how to obtain photographs for photogrammetry, to generate, scale, and orient the models, and to extract [...]

“Enriching Lives within Sedimentary Geology”: Actionable Recommendations for Making SEPM a Diverse, Equitable and Inclusive Society for All Sedimentary Geologists

Anjali M Fernandes, Antoinette Abeyta, Robert Clyde Mahon, et al.

Published: 2020-07-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Education, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Innovative science benefits from diversity of thought and influence at all waypoints along the scientific journey, from early education to career-length contributions in research and mentorship. Scientific societies, like the Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), steward their innovators and the direction of the science, thereby defining the societal impact and evolution of a discipline. They [...]

Fully Automated Carbonate Petrography Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

Ardiansyah Koeshidayatullah, Michele Morsilli, Daniel J. Lehrmann, et al.

Published: 2020-06-22
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Carbonate rocks are important archives of past ocean conditions as well as hosts of economic resources such as hydrocarbons, water, and minerals. Geologists typically perform compositional analysis of grain, matrix, cement and pore types in order to interpret depositional environments, diagenetic modification, and reservoir quality of carbonate strata. Such information can be obtained primarily [...]

Architecture and controls of thick, intensely bioturbated, storm-influenced shallow-marine successions: an example from the Jurassic Neuquén Basin (Argentina)

Ernesto Schwarz, Miquel Poyatos-Moré, Salvador Boya, et al.

Published: 2020-06-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Thick (>100 m-thick), highly bioturbated storm-influenced shallow-marine deposits are not frequent in the stratigraphic record, but they tend to be unusually common in aggradational to retrogradational successions. Individual storm-event beds have typically low preservation in these successions, yet depositional settings are characterized on the basis of storms processes. We present a [...]

International disparities in open access practices of the Earth Sciences community

Olivier Pourret, David William Hedding, Dasapta Erwin Irawan, et al.

Published: 2020-03-31
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Library and Information Science, Mineral Physics, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Short communication on international disparities in open access practices of the Earth Sciences community

New composite bio- and isotope stratigraphies spanning the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum at tropical ODP Site 865 in the Pacific Ocean

Kirsty Edgar, Steven Bohaty, Helen Coxall, et al.

Published: 2020-02-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy

The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) at ca. 40 Ma is one of the largest of the transient Eocene global warming events. However, it is relatively poorly known from tropical settings as few sites span the entirety of the MECO event and/or host calcareous microfossils, which are the dominant proxy carrier. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Pacific Ocean Site 865 in the low-latitude North Pacific [...]

NSB: an expanded and improved database of marine planktonic microfossil data and deep-sea stratigraphy

Johan Renaudie, David Lazarus, Patrick Diver

Published: 2019-09-19
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy

Thirty years ago, the Neptune Database was created to synthesize microfossil occurrences from the deep-sea drilling record. It has been used in numerous studies by both biologists and paleontologists of the evolution and distribution in space and time of marine microplankton. After decades of discontinuous development in various institutions, a significant overhaul of the system was made during [...]

Early Paleocene Paleoceanography and Export Productivity in the Chicxulub Crater

Christopher Michael Lowery, Heather Jones, Timothy J Bralower, et al.

Published: 2019-08-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

The Chicxulub impact caused a crash in export productivity in much of the world’s oceans which contributed to the extinction of 75% of marine species. In the immediate aftermath of the extinction, local export productivity was highly variable, with some sites, including the Chicxulub crater, recording elevated export production. The long-term transition back to more stable export productivity [...]

Marine biomarkers from ice cores reveal enhanced high-latitude Southern Ocean carbon sink during the Antarctic Cold Reversal

Christopher Fogwill, Chris Stewart MacGregor Turney, Laurie Menviel, et al.

Published: 2019-05-31
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Glaciology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Determining the feedbacks that modulate Southern Ocean carbon dynamics is key to understanding past and future climate. The global pause in rising atmospheric CO2 during the period of mid- to high-latitude southern surface cooling known as the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR, 14,700-12,700 years ago) provides an opportunity to disentangle competing influences. We present highly-resolved and [...]

Tectonic controls on deposition in the late Cambrian - Early Ordovician Central Andean Basin (Cordillera Oriental; northwest Argentina) – the first step towards an integrative reconstruction

Romain Vaucher, N. Emilio Vaccari, Diego Balseiro, et al.

Published: 2018-12-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

This study focuses on upper Cambrian – Lower Ordovician strata containing the lowermost fossil-bearing levels of the basin (Santa Rosita Formation and Guayoc Chico Group). Bounded by two major regional unconformities, this stratigraphic interval was previously considered as a retro-arc foreland basin displaying evidence of westward progradation without tectonic activity during its deposition. [...]

Ocean Drilling Perspectives on Meteorite Impacts

Christopher Michael Lowery, Joanna Morgan, Sean Gulick, et al.

Published: 2018-08-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Sciences, Stratigraphy

Extraterrestrial impacts are a ubiquitous process in the solar system, reshaping the surface of rocky bodies of all sizes. On early Earth, impact structures may have been a nursery for the evolution of life. More recently, a large meteorite impact caused the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, causing the extinction of 75% of species known from the fossil, including non-avian dinosaurs, and clearing [...]

A fossiliferous spherule-rich bed at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary in Mississippi, USA: implications for the K-Pg mass extinction event in the MS Embayment and Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

James Witts, Neil H. Landman, Matthew P. Garb, et al.

Published: 2018-06-14
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

We describe an outcrop of the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) boundary exposed due to construction near New Albany, Union County, Mississippi. It consists of the Owl Creek Formation and overlying Clayton Formation. The Owl Creek Formation is rich in the ammonites Discoscaphites iris and Eubaculites carinatus, which, along with biostratigraphically important dinoflagellate cysts and calcareous [...]

What caused Earths largest mass extinction event? New evidence from the Permian-Triassic boundary in northeastern Utah

Benjamin Burger

Published: 2018-02-26
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Biology, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Life Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

The discovery of a Permian-Triassic boundary section in northeastern Utah reveals a detailed record of events that led to one of the greatest mass extinctions on the planet. From 83% to 97% of the species living on the planet went extinct during this relatively short interval of geological time, which defines the major geological boundary between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Eras. The cause and [...]

A users guide to Neoproterozoic geochronology

Daniel Condon, Samuel Bowring

Published: 2017-11-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy

Geochronology is essential for understanding Neoproterozoic Earth history. Here we review the types of rocks and minerals that are used to date geologic events and the analytical protocols for the different radio-isotopic decay systems employed. We discuss the limitations and potential of these methodologies for dating Neoproterozoic stratigraphy, highlighting the major sources and magnitudes of [...]

U-Pb geochronology and global context of the Charnian Supergroup, UK: Constraints on the age of key Ediacaran fossil assemblages

Stephen R Noble, Daniel Condon, John N Carney, et al.

Published: 2017-11-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy

U-Pb (zircon) ages for key stratigraphic volcanic horizons within the ~3200-m-thick Ediacaran-age Charnian Supergroup provide an improved age model for the included Avalonian assemblage macrofossils and, hence, temporal constraints essential for intercomparisons of the Charnian fossils with other Ediacaran fossil assemblages globally. The Ives Head Formation (Blackbrook Group), the oldest exposed [...]


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