Filtering by Subject: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Spaceborne assessment of the Soviet Union's role in the 1990s methane slowdown

Tai-Long He, Ryan J. Boyd, Daniel J. Varon, et al.

Published: 2023-10-04
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, amounting to 60% of the radiative forcing from CO2 since pre-industrial times based on emitted compound. Global atmospheric methane concentrations rose by 10-15 ppb/yr in the 1980s before abruptly slowing to 2-8 ppb/yr in the early 1990s. This period in the 1990s is known as the ``methane slowdown'' and has been attributed to the [...]

No respite from permafrost-thaw impacts in absence of a global tipping point

Jan Nitzbon, Thomas Schneider von Deimling, Mehriban Aliyeva, et al.

Published: 2023-09-25
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Arctic permafrost, the largest non-seasonal component of Earth’s cryosphere, contains a significant climate-sensitive carbon pool. Its potential for loss due to climatic changes leading to a global tipping point, where thawing accelerates with disproportionate impacts, remains debated. Here, we provide an integrative perspective on this question, building on a cross-disciplinary meta-analysis of [...]

Inter-annual Variation of Summer Southwest Monsoon Rainfall over the Monsoon Core Region of the Eastern Bay of Bengal and its Relationship with Oceans

Kyaw Than Oo, Jonah Kazora

Published: 2023-09-22
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Using rainfall data from the Observation and, ERA5 reanalysis of sea surface temperature, this study examined the inter-annual variation of summer southwest monsoon rainfall on the eastern Bay of Bengal (BoB) mainland Indochina regions associated with ENSO. The composite study exhibits decreased rainfall in the eastern coastal region of BoB, and an increase in the northern Indo-Myanmar region [...]

Shifting institutional culture to develop climate solutions with Open Science

Julia Stewart Lowndes, Anna Holder, Emily Markowitz, et al.

Published: 2023-09-20
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Matilda v1.0: An R package for probabilistic climate projections using a reduced complexity climate model

Joseph K Brown, Leeya Pressburger, Abigail Snyder, et al.

Published: 2023-09-15
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

A primary advantage to using reduced complexity climate models (RCMs) has been their ability to quickly conduct probabilistic climate projections, a key component of uncertainty quantification in many impact studies and multisector systems. Providing frameworks for such analyses has been a target of several RCMs used in studies of the future co-evolution of the human and Earth systems. In this [...]

Understanding Drought Awareness from Web Data

Mashrekur Rahman, Samuel Sandoval Solis, Thomas Harter, et al.

Published: 2023-08-17
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Mathematics, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Statistics and Probability

We used computer vision (U-Net) model to leverage Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Google Trends Search Interest (SI), and Twitter data to understand patterns with which people in Continental United States (CONUS) indicate awareness of and interest in droughts. We found significant statistical relationships between the occurrence of meteorological droughts (MD), as [...]

Improving Weather Prediction Technologies: Establishing a Relationship between Air Pollution and Weather Phenomena

Raghav Sriram

Published: 2023-08-11
Subjects: Chemistry, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

The primary focus of this research is to establish a link between air quality, weather patterns, and climate dynamics. Employing a correlative methodology, the study aims to investigate the association between air pollution levels and the occurrence frequency of acid rain events. To accomplish this, extensive quantitative meteorological data gathered from weather stations situated in the [...]

Our first Anthroponomic task: Remove the infrared pea soup

Ferren MacIntyre

Published: 2023-08-01
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Some underappreciated aspects of the climate. [Idealization]: Earth has a partially IR-opaque 5-km-deep tropospheric layer whose (slowly rising) top radiates waste heat to space at the -18°C Stefan-Boltzmann temperature and below which the temperature increases 33°C by adiabatic compression. Fossil-fuel CO2 has deepened this layer by 308 m and added 2°C of Anthropogenic Global Warming. [...]

Unsupervised clustering identifies thermohaline staircases in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean

Mikhail Schee, Erica Rosenblum, Jonathan Lilly, et al.

Published: 2023-07-28
Subjects: Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Thermohaline staircases are a widespread stratification feature that impact the vertical transport of heat and nutrients and are consistently observed throughout the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. Observations of staircases from the same time period and geographic region form clusters in temperature-salinity ($T$--$S$) space. Here, for the first time, we use an automated clustering algorithm [...]

Plastics in the deep sea – a global estimate of the ocean floor reservoir

Xia Zhu, Chelsea Rochman, Britta Denise Hardesty, et al.

Published: 2023-07-22
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

The exponential increase in plastic production coupled with variable global waste management system efficiencies has resulted in large amounts of plastic waste entering the ocean every year. Although we know millions of tonnes of plastic have entered the oceans, we do not yet understand the patterns of its accumulation across space nor the drivers of these patterns. The deep ocean is expected to [...]

Application of Köppen Climate Classification of Two Remote Regions in Turkey

Görkem Güngör

Published: 2023-07-21
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

This paper presents the application of the Köppen climate classification system for two remote regions in Turkey. The author describes the Köppen system and the history of climate classification briefly. The author uses the meteorological data of Mersin province in the Mediterranean region and Sinop province in the Black Sea region. The author compares the results with the existing classification [...]

Separating Internal and Forced Contributions to Near Term SST Predictability in the CESM2-LE

Emily Gordon, Elizabeth A Barnes, Frances V Davenport

Published: 2023-07-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

An open question in the study of climate prediction is whether internal variability will continue to contribute to prediction skill in the coming decades, or whether predictable signals will be overwhelmed by rising temperatures driven by anthropogenic forcing. We design an interpretable neural network that can be decomposed to examine the relative contributions of external forcing and internal [...]

Last Glacial Maximum pattern effects reduce climate sensitivity estimates

Vincent T. Cooper, Kyle C. Armour, Greg Hakim, et al.

Published: 2023-07-14
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Here we show that the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) provides a strong constraint on equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS), the global-mean warming from increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations, after temperature patterns are accounted for. Feedbacks governing ECS depend on spatial patterns of surface temperature (“pattern effects”), hence using the LGM to constrain future warming requires [...]

Satellite-derived shorelines for monitoring of sandy beaches: a benchmark study

Kilian Vos, Kristen D Splinter, Jesús Palomar-Vázquez, et al.

Published: 2023-07-10
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Satellite remote sensing is becoming a widely used monitoring technique in coastal sciences. Yet, no benchmarking studies exist that compare the performance of popular satellite-derived shoreline (SDS) mapping algorithms against standardized sets of inputs and validation data. Here we present a new benchmarking framework to evaluate the accuracy of shoreline change observations extracted from [...]

Ensemble of land-surface air temperatures between 1880-2022 using a revised pair-wise homogenization algorithm

DUO CHAN, Geoffrey Gebbie, Peter Huybers

Published: 2023-07-06
Subjects: Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Various observational estimates of historical land surface air temperature (LSAT) trends differ on account of differences in corrections. Relative to the most-recent estimate provided by NOAA’s Global Historical Climatology Network Monthly Version 4 (GHCNm4), an estimate by Berkeley Earth is 0.02°C warmer and one by the Climate Research Unit (CRUTEM5) is 0.14°C warmer between 1880–1940. Such [...]


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