Filtering by Subject: Planetary Sciences

Effects on Target Geology

Auriol S. P. Rae, Veronica J. Bray

Published: 2023-09-15
Subjects: Planetary Sciences

The process of impact crater formation can fundamentally change the nature of target materials, creating products that can be observed from planetary-scale geophysics all the way down to mineral microstructure. Impact-generated shock waves can vaporise, melt, and permanently deform the materials they pass through. Large quantities of the target are damaged and displaced, ejecting material outside [...]

A scoping review on climate change education

Veruska Muccione, Tracy Ewen, Saeid Ashraf Vaghefi

Published: 2023-07-28
Subjects: Planetary Sciences

Escalating climate impacts predicted in the past decades are now a reality almost everywhere on the planet, and the time-critical dimension of the climate crisis means that the coming years will be instrumental in securing a climate resilient future for generations to come. Education is central to promoting climate action, yet the role that climate change education plays in advancing climate [...]

Discovery of a new 12-km impact crater candidate at As Sail Al Kabeer, Saudi Arabia

Abdulrahman Toonsi

Published: 2023-07-11
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geology, Planetary Sciences

The Arabian shield of Saudi Arabia likely has many impact craters due to the old age of its rocks, however many of them have not yet been discovered due to their resemblance to plutons. Using satellite imagery, a 12-km wide circular structure with a central peak was identified at As Sail Al Kabeer, 40 kilometers north of the city of Taif in western Saudi Arabia. Fieldwork has shown that this [...]

Making Planets on Earth: How Experimental Petrology Is Essential to Planetary Exploration

Kayla Iacovino, Nicole G Lunning, Gordon Moore, et al.

Published: 2023-04-26
Subjects: Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Sciences

Our knowledge of the evolution of the solar system relies upon our ability to interpret a limited set of observations, including geochemical data from returned samples and meteorites, remotely sensed data from spacecraft and telescopes, and information measured in situ via landers and rovers. Our ability to obtain these data is constantly improving in quality and quantity, but the understanding [...]

Calling for a National Model Benchmarking Facility

Benjamin Lyle Ruddell, Martyn Clark, Jessica M Driscoll, et al.

Published: 2023-04-14
Subjects: Biology, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Life Sciences, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences, Systems Biology

The modern world uses predictive computer models for many important purposes, including weather predictions, epidemic management, flood forecasting and warnings, and economic policymaking. We need to know how much we can trust the projections of these models, not only to achieve more accurate projections for systems, but also to undertake scientific learning about systems by incrementally testing [...]

Examining the power supplied to Earth's dynamo by magnesium precipitation and radiogenic heat production

Alfred Wilson, Monica Pozzo, Chris Davies, et al.

Published: 2023-04-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

We examine magnesium and potassium solubility in liquid Fe mixtures, representative of Earth’s core composition, in equilibrium with liquid silicate mixtures representative of an early magma ocean. Our study is based on the calculation of the chemical potentials of MgO and K2O in both phases, using density functional theory. For MgO, we also study stability against precipitation of the solid [...]

Reconciling fast and slow cooling during planetary formation as recorded in the main group pallasites

Maeve Elizabeth Murphy Quinlan, Andrew Walker, Chris Davies

Published: 2023-03-31
Subjects: Cosmochemistry, Other Planetary Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geology, Planetary Sciences

Pallasite meteorites contain evidence for vastly different cooling timescales: rapid cooling at high temperatures (K/yrs) and slow cooling at lower temperatures (K/Myrs). Pallasite olivine also shows contrasting textures ranging from well-rounded to angular and fragmental, and some samples record chemical zoning. Previous pallasite formation models have required fortuitous changes to the parent [...]

False positives are common in single-station template matching

Jack Broderick Muir, Benjamin Fernando

Published: 2023-02-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Sciences

Template matching has become a cornerstone technique of observational seismology. By taking known events, and scanning them against a continuous record, new events smaller than the signal-to-noise ratio can be found, substantially improving the magnitude of completeness of earthquake catalogues. Template matching is normally used in an array setting, however as we move into the era of planetary [...]

Numerical simulation of meteorite impact on basaltic lavas at Lonar Crater, India

Harshal Pohekar, Raymond Duraiswami, Satadru bhattacharya, et al.

Published: 2023-01-28
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Astrophysics and Astronomy, Planetary Sciences

Lonar lake is a hypervelocity impact crater formed in a basaltic terrain of Deccan Traps in the state of Maharashtra, India. The crater has an approximate radius of 915 m and an average depth of about 137 m. Here we report the results of our numerical investigations aimed to elucidate the physical characteristics of incoming asteroid. For realistic simulation, we not only consider [...]

Trends in Planetary Science research in the Puna and Atacama desert regions: under-representation of local scientific institutions?

Adrien Jeremy Tavernier, Gabriel Pinto, Millarca Valenzuela, et al.

Published: 2022-12-19
Subjects: Planetary Sciences

In 2019 while launching a multidisciplinary research project aimed at developing the Puna de Atacama region as a natural laboratory, investigators within the University of Atacama (Chile) conducted a bibliographic search identifying previously studied geographical points of the region and of potential interest for planetary science and astrobiology research. This preliminary work highlighted a [...]

Comment on "Estimates on the Frequency of Volcanic Eruptions on Venus" by Byrne & Krishnamoorthy (2022)

Iris van Zelst

Published: 2022-11-30
Subjects: Other Planetary Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Sciences

Byrne & Krishnamoorthy (2022) estimated the frequency of volcanic eruptions on Venus by scaling the eruption frequency obtained from a database containing Earth data. In reproducing their study, I found that the estimated number of new and ongoing volcanic eruptions on Venus in a given year is approximately 42, instead of the previously reported 120 eruptions. This updated estimate of Byrne & [...]

Geosphere and Biosphere coevolution: the role of trace metals availability in the evolution of biogeochemistry

Donato Giovannelli

Published: 2022-11-20
Subjects: Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology, Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Microbiology, Planetary Sciences

Earth’s geosphere and biosphere have coevolved over time, influencing each other’s stability and keeping our planet habitable for most of its 4.543 billion years of history. Biogeochemical cycles play a key role in controlling this interaction, connecting long-term geological cycles and the much faster evolution of the Earth’s outer biologically dominated envelopes. A small set of [...]

Efficient Estimation of Climate State and Its Uncertainty Using Kalman Filtering with Application to Policy Thresholds and Volcanism

John Matthew Nicklas, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Charles E Lawrence

Published: 2022-10-18
Subjects: Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Non-linear Dynamics, Planetary Sciences, Statistical Models

We present the Energy Balance Model – Kalman Filter (EBM-KF), a hybrid model of the global mean surface temperature (GMST) and ocean heat content anomaly (OHCA). It combines an energy balance model with parameters drawn from the literature and a statistical Extended Kalman Filter assimilating observed and/or earth system model-simulated GMST and OHCA. Our motivation is to create an efficient and [...]

U-Net-based Semantic Classification for Flood Extent Extraction using SAR Imagery and GEE Platform: A Case Study for 2019 Central US Flooding

Zhouyayan Li, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2022-09-15
Subjects: Planetary Sciences

Data-driven models for water body extraction have experienced accelerated growth in recent years, thanks to advances in processing techniques and computational resources, as well as improved data availability. In this study, we modified the standard U-Net, a convolutional neural network (CNN) method, to extract water bodies from scenes captured from Sentinel-1 satellites of selected areas during [...]

A minimally cemented shallow crust beneath InSight

Vashan Wright, Jhardel Dasent, Richard Kilburn, et al.

Published: 2022-04-21
Subjects: Planetary Geology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology

Ice and other mineral cements in Mars’ shallow subsurface affect the mechanical properties of the shallow crust, the geologic processes that shape the planet’s surface, and the search for past or extant Martian life. Cements increase seismic velocities. We use rock physics models to infer cement properties from seismic velocities. Model results confirm that the upper 300 m of Mars beneath InSight [...]


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