Filtering by Subject: Planetary Sciences

U-Net-based Semantic Classification for Flood Extent Extraction using SAR Imagery and GEE Platform: A Case Study for 2019 Central US Flooding

Zhouyayan Li, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2022-09-15
Subjects: Planetary Sciences

Data-driven models for water body extraction have experienced accelerated growth in recent years, thanks to advances in processing techniques and computational resources, as well as improved data availability. In this study, we modified the standard U-Net, a convolutional neural network (CNN) method, to extract water bodies from scenes captured from Sentinel-1 satellites of selected areas during [...]

A minimally cemented shallow crust beneath InSight

Vashan Wright, Jhardel Dasent, Richard Kilburn, et al.

Published: 2022-04-21
Subjects: Planetary Geology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology

Ice and other mineral cements in Mars’ shallow subsurface affect the mechanical properties of the shallow crust, the geologic processes that shape the planet’s surface, and the search for past or extant Martian life. Cements increase seismic velocities. We use rock physics models to infer cement properties from seismic velocities. Model results confirm that the upper 300 m of Mars beneath InSight [...]

Internal Planetary Feedbacks, Mantle Dynamics, and Plate Tectonics

Adrian Lenardic, Johnny Seales

Published: 2022-03-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

Isolating planetary feedbacks, and feedback analysis, are prevalent aspects of climate and Earth surface process science. An under appreciation of internal planet feedbacks, and feedback analysis for plate tectonics research, motivate this chapter. We review feedbacks that influence the Earth's thermal evolution and expand them to include magmatic history and planetary water budgets. The [...]

The open collection of geoscience graphics

Fabio Crameri, Grace Shephard, Eivind O. Straume

Published: 2022-02-15
Subjects: Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Graphics and Human Computer Interfaces, Instructional Media Design, Planetary Sciences

A standard internet image search on a geoscientific topic is common practice, and offers a plethora of images. However, the suggested images provide neither a guarantee in the accuracy of the science content being portrayed, nor in their visual accessibility or clarity. Being curated by both scientists and artists, the online s-ink collection ( is a sharing platform for high [...]

Deep-water cycling and the Magmatic History of the Earth

Johnny Seales, Adrian Lenardic, Mark Richards

Published: 2022-01-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Planetary Sciences

Earth is a magmatically active planet. Magmatism connects Earth's interior to its atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere through cycling of volatiles, greenhouse gasses, and nutrients. Earth's magmatic history is intertwined with its thermal and tectonic evolution. How magmatism has evolved and been maintained in the face of planetary cooling remains an open question. We address this question [...]

Thermal evolution of rocky exoplanets with a graphite outer shell

Kaustubh Hakim, Arie van den Berg, Allona Vazan, et al.

Published: 2022-01-18
Subjects: Astrophysics and Astronomy, Planetary Sciences

The presence of rocky exoplanets with a large refractory carbon inventory is predicted by chemical evolution models of protoplanetary disks of stars with photospheric C/O >0.65, and by models studying the radial transport of refractory carbon. High-pressure high-temperature laboratory experiments show that most of the carbon in these exoplanets differentiates into a graphite outer shell. Our aim [...]

Coupled dynamics and evolution of primordial and recycled heterogeneity in Earth’s lower mantle

Anna Gülcher, Maxim Ballmer, Paul Tackley

Published: 2021-12-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Planetary Sciences

The nature of compositional heterogeneity in Earth’s lower mantle remains a long-standing puzzle that can inform about the long-term thermochemical evolution and dynamics of our planet. Here, we use global-scale 2D models of thermo- chemical mantle convection to investigate the coupled evolution and mixing of (intrinsically-dense) recycled and (intrinsically- strong) primordial heterogeneity in [...]

Corona structures driven by plume-lithosphere interactions and evidence for ongoing plume activity on Venus

Anna Gülcher, Laurent Montési, Taras Gerya, et al.

Published: 2021-12-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

In the absence of global plate tectonics, mantle convection and plume-lithosphere interaction are the main drivers of surface deformation on Venus. Among documented tectonic structures, circular volcano-tectonic features known as coronae may be the clearest surface manifestations of mantle plumes and hold clues to the global Venusian tectonic regime. Yet, the exact processes underlying coronae [...]

Constraints on the ice composition of carbonaceous chondrites from their magnetic mineralogy

Sanjana Sridhar, James F. J. Bryson, Ashley J. King, et al.

Published: 2021-10-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Carbonaceous chondrites experienced varying degrees of aqueous alteration on their parent asteroids, which influenced their mineralogies, textures, and bulk chemical and isotopic compositions. Although this alteration was a crucial event in the history of these meteorites, their various alteration pathways are not well understood. One phase that formed during this alteration was magnetite, and [...]

Scum of the Earth: a hypothesis for prebiotic multi-compartmentalised environments}

Craig Robert Walton, Oliver Shorttle

Published: 2021-09-14
Subjects: Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology, Earth Sciences, Planetary Sciences

Compartmentalisation by bioenergetic membranes is a universal feature of life. The eventual compartmentalisation of prebiotic systems is therefore often argued to comprise a key step during the origin of life. Compartments may have been active participants in prebiotic chemistry, concentrating and spatially organising key reactants. However, most prebiotically plausible compartments are leaky or [...]


Natalia Rybnikova, Alejandro Sánchez de Miguel, Sviatoslav Rybnikov, et al.

Published: 2021-09-11
Subjects: Planetary Sciences

Artificial night-time light (NTL), emitted by various on-ground human activities, becomes further intensive in many regions worldwide. Its adverse effects on humans’ and ecosystems’ health crucially depend on the light spectrum, making the remote discrimination between different lamps a highly important task. However, such studies remain extremely limited, and none of them exploits freely [...]

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gawain T. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

Kinking facilitates grain nucleation and modifies crystallographic preferred orientations during high-stress ice deformation

Sheng Fan, David J. Prior, Travis F. Hager, et al.

Published: 2021-07-28
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Kinking can accommodate significant amounts of strain during crystal plastic deformation under relatively large stresses and may influence the mechanical properties of cold planetary cryosphere. To better understand the origins, mechanisms, and microstructural effects of kinking, we present detailed microstructural analyses of coarse-grained ice (~1300 µm) deformed under uniaxial compression at [...]

New systemically measured sand mining budget for the Mekong Delta reveals rising trends and significant volume underestimations

Charles Robin Gruel, Edward Park, Loc Huu Ho, et al.

Published: 2021-07-16
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

The river beds of the Mekong Delta are some of the most intensively sand mined places in the world, however sand mining budgets are limited to rough and indirect estimates. Here, we provide a systematic, semi-physically based estimation of the Mekong Delta’s sand mining budget. We provide a quantified budget that overcomes limitations resulting from previous reliance on officially declared [...]

Timing of Martian Core Formation from Models of Hf–W Evolution Coupled with N-body Simulations

Matthew C Brennan, Rebecca A Fischer, Francis Nimmo, et al.

Published: 2021-06-04
Subjects: Geochemistry, Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences

Determining how and when Mars formed has been a long-standing challenge for planetary scientists. The size and orbit of Mars are difficult to reproduce in classical simulations of planetary accretion, and this has inspired models of inner solar system evolution that are tuned to produce Mars-like planets. However, such models are not always coupled to geochemical constraints. Analyses of Martian [...]


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