Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Volcanology

Estimation and Uncertainty Quantification of Magma Interaction Times using Statistical Emulation

Luca Insolia, Stéphane Guerrier, Chiara Paola Montagna, et al.

Published: 2022-12-02
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Evolution of volcanic plumbing systems towards eruptions of different styles and sizes largely depends on processes at crustal depths that are outside our observational capabilities. These processes can be modeled and the outputs of the simulations can be compared with the chemistry of the erupted products, geophysical and geodetic data to retrieve information on the architecture of the plumbing [...]

Barometers behaving badly: Assessing the influence of analytical and experimental uncertainty on clinopyroxene thermobarometry calculations at crustal conditions

Penny E Wieser, Adam JR Kent, Christy Till, et al.

Published: 2022-12-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Mineral Physics, Volcanology

The composition of clinopyroxene and Clinopyroxene-Liquid (Cpx-Liq) pairs are frequently used to calculate crystallization/equilibration pressures in igneous systems. While canonical uncertainties are often assigned to calculated pressures based on fits to calibration or test datasets, the sources of these uncertainties (and thus ways to reduce them) have not been rigorously assessed. We show [...]

Joint probabilistic inversion of 3D magnetotelluric and seismic data: Lithospheric structure and melting dynamics in southeast Australia

Maria Constanza Manassero, Sinan ozaydin, Juan Carlos Afonso, et al.

Published: 2022-11-18
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

The thermochemical structure of the lithosphere exerts control on melting mechanisms in the mantle as well as the location of volcanic eruptions and ore deposits. Imaging the complex interactions between the lithosphere and asthenospheric mantle require the joint inversion of multiple data sets and their uncertainties. In particular, the combination of temperature and electrical conductivity with [...]

Evolution of intraplate magmatism atop a mantle plume: geochemical and chronological analysis of Shawahit Basalt, Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia

Gareth G Roberts, Patrick Ball

Published: 2022-11-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Harrat Rahat is the largest volcanic  eld in Saudi Arabia and has been active from ~10 Ma to the present day. Due to its close proximity to important population centres, Harrat Rahat's recent eruptions, the Medinah lava flows (< 1.7 Ma), have been extensively studied to identify volcanic risk. However, the evolution of Harrat Rahat's most extensive and oldest lava flows, known collectively as the [...]

The missing carbon budget puzzle piece: shallow-water hydrothermal vents contribution to global CO2 fluxes

Alessia Bastianoni, Martina Cascone, Joost M de Moor, et al.

Published: 2022-11-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Volcanology

The release of CO2 gases from volcanoes and their secondary geothermal manifestations are an important contributor to the global carbon budget. While degassing from mid ocean ridges is relatively well-constrained, the contribution of shallow submarine volcanic degassing to the atmosphere is less clear. Shallow-water hydrothermal vents are common seafloor features present at depths shallower than [...]

Fire From Volcanic Activity: Quantifying the threat from an understudied hazard

Jia Yong Quah, Josh L Hayes, Rebecca H Fitzgerald, et al.

Published: 2022-10-30
Subjects: Risk Analysis, Volcanology

Fire from volcanic activity (FFVA) is a highly dangerous and largely understudied hazard arising from volcanic activity. FFVA can be caused by a variety of volcanic hazards and can greatly compound the damage and losses associated with volcanic activity, in addition to creating complications for event response and mitigation. In this study, we develop a FFVA ignition probability model underpinned [...]

Assessing the magnitude of volcanic risk to global shipping

Paul Cragg, Pete Rowley, Samuel J Mitchell

Published: 2022-10-28
Subjects: Nature and Society Relations, Volcanology

With a global economy dependent on marine traffic there has been little study or recognition of the risk posed to this industry by volcanism. Most major shipping lanes pass close to active volcanoes, or through straits and channels which can be impacted by volcanic debris. In this paper we set out the main hazards presented by volcanoes to shipping, and reflect on the magnitude of risk that these [...]

How inclusive is volcanology? Insights from global bibliometric analyses

Geoffrey A Lerner, George T Williams, Elinor S Meredith, et al.

Published: 2022-09-15
Subjects: Library and Information Science, Volcanology

In this study, we use bibliometric methods to assess the way in which local researchers are included in volcanological publications by comparing the affiliation of authors with the country in which researched volcanoes are located. Globally, 40% of articles about a specific volcano do not include an author whose affiliation is based in the country where the volcano is located (a locally domiciled [...]

A genetic model of the magnetite-apatite deposits on El Laco volcano by extrusion of iron-rich melt

Tobias Keller, Fernando Tornos, John M. Hanchar, et al.

Published: 2022-08-25
Subjects: Dynamical Systems, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geochemistry, Geology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Magnetite-apatite deposits are important sources of iron and other metals. A prominent exam- ple are the magnetite lavas at the El Laco volcano, Northern Chile. Their formation processes remain debated. Here, we test the genetic hypothesis that an Fe-rich melt separated from silicate magma and ascended along collapse-related fractures. We complement recent analy- ses with thermodynamic modelling [...]

Slab to back-arc to arc: fluid and melt pathways through the mantle wedge beneath the Lesser Antilles

Stephen Paul Hicks, Lidong Bie, Catherine Rychert, et al.

Published: 2022-07-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Volatiles expelled from subducted plates melt the overlying warm mantle, feeding arc volcanism. However, debates continue over the factors controlling melt generation and transport and how these determine the placement of volcanoes. To broaden our synoptic view of these fundamental mantle wedge processes, we image seismic attenuation beneath the Lesser Antilles arc, an end-member system that [...]

Reconstructing Rotomahana Basin topography to disclose the lost White Terraces─ New Zealand’s Eighth Wonder of the World

Rex Bunn

Published: 2022-07-05
Subjects: Geographic Information Sciences, Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical and Environmental Geography, Spatial Science, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

The greatest geoscience and tourist attractions in the southern hemisphere were the Pink and White Terraces, the lost Eighth Wonder of the World. British, American and European tourists bypassed local calcareous terraces, for the sea voyage to New Zealand where the siliceous terraces astonished a global audience. Their allure remains. In 1886, the Mount Tarawera eruption buried the terraces. They [...]

The Eighth Wonder of the World in New Zealand─ the third, Black Terrace

Rex Bunn

Published: 2022-06-28
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Planetary Sciences, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

The greatest tourism and geoscience attraction in the southern hemisphere, in the nineteenth century were the siliceous Pink and White Terraces, the lost Eighth Wonder of the World in New Zealand. In 1886, the Mount Tarawera eruption buried the terraces. In the absence of any government survey or evidence of their locations or destruction; debate over their survival continued until the 1940s. [...]

Ascent rates of 3D fractures driven by a finite batch of buoyant fluid

Timothy Davis, Eleonora Rivalta, Delphine Smittarello, et al.

Published: 2022-06-20
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Geology, Glaciology, Mechanics of Materials, Volcanology

Propagation of fluid-filled fractures by fluid buoyancy is important in a variety of settings, from magmatic dykes and veins to water-filled crevasses in glaciers. Industrial hydro-fracturing utilises fluid-driven fractures to increase the permeability of rock formations; the effect of buoyancy on fracture pathways in this context is typically neglected. Analytical approximations for the buoyant [...]

Advances in seismic imaging of magma and crystal mush

Michele Paulatto, Emilie Hooft, Kajetan Chrapkiewicz, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Seismic imaging methods have provided detailed three-dimensional constraints on the physical properties of magmatic systems leading to invaluable insight into the storage, differentiation and dynamics of magma. These constraints have been crucial to the development of our modern understanding of magmatic systems. However, there are still outstanding knowledge gaps resulting from the challenges [...]

The CREp 36Cl exposure age calculator: development version “dev”

Irene Schimmelpfennig, Pierre-Henri BLARD, Jim Tesson, et al.

Published: 2022-05-04
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Chlorine-36 (36Cl) is currently the only in situ cosmogenic nuclide applicable in carbonates, Ca- and K-rich feldspars and aphyric silicate rocks. Because the production reactions of 36Cl are more numerous and complex than those of other cosmogenic nuclides (e.g. 10Be, 3He), comprehensive and user-friendly calculators are essential for routine application of 36Cl to Earth surface research [...]

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