Filtering by Subject: Volcanology

Stationary surface waves and antidunes in dense pyroclastic density currents

Pete Rowley, Guido Giordano, Aurora Silleni, et al.

Published: 2023-03-28
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Sedimentology, Volcanology

Stationary antidunes are a product of critical flow in open channel systems, but with poor preservation potential. They are related to the existence of stationary surface waves in the overriding current, but their existence in the dense pyroclastic density current regime has been unrecognized to date. Experiments presented here demonstrate that surface waves in simulated dense pyroclastic density [...]

Effects of concentrated and intense heavy rain on phreatic eruptions ~Based on a case study of the phreatic eruptions of Mt. Ontake in Japan-~

Nobuo Uchida

Published: 2023-02-27
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

"This paper is a non-peer reviewed preprint submitted to EarthArXiv" For humans living in an economic zone adjacent to volcanoes, the reality of unpredictable eruptions is a constant concern. This paper presents a new view on the phreatic eruption process of Mt. Ontake, Japan. The purpose of this posting is to find ways to reduce casualties from phreatic eruptions. As a background, there is the [...]

Identifying analogues for Melimoyu, a long-dormant and data-limited volcano in Chile, through hierarchical clustering

Vanesa Burgos, Susanna F Jenkins, Laura Bono Troncoso, et al.

Published: 2023-02-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Volcanology

Melimoyu is a long-dormant and data-limited volcano in the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) in Chile with only two confirmed Holocene eruptions (VEI 5). Determining the frequency-magnitude relationship for Melimoyu is challenging due to data scarcity. To supplement the eruption records, we identify analogue volcanoes for Melimoyu (i.e., volcanoes that behave similarly and are identified through [...]

The nature of the proximal volcaniclastic materials from the 2021 eruption Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba in the Izu-Bonin arc.

Kenta Yoshida, Yoshihiko Tamura, Tomoki Sato, et al.

Published: 2023-01-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Volcanology

Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba is a submarine volcano located at 24°17.1′N/141°28.9′E in the Izu–Bonin–Mariana arc, and is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan. This volcano produced an explosive eruption in August 2021 that generated a large amount of volcaniclastic material, some of which drifted westward to Japan and the coastal area of East Asia as a pumice raft. The pumice clasts that drifted for [...]

Diffusion of halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) in silicic melt

Yves Feisel, Jonathan M. Castro, Christoph Helo, et al.

Published: 2023-01-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Volcanology

Chemical diffusion of the halogens F, Cl, Br, and I in silica-rich natural melts was experimentally investigated by the diffusion couple technique. Experiments were conducted under anhydrous conditions at atmospheric pressure and hydrous conditions (~1.5 wt.% H2O) at 160 MPa, over a temperature range of 750–1000 °C and 1000–1200 °C, respectively. Quenched trachytic melt samples were analyzed [...]

Barometers behaving badly II: A critical evaluation of Cpx-only and Cpx-Liq thermobarometry in variably-hydrous arc magmas

Penny Wieser, Adam J Kent, Christy Till

Published: 2022-12-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Volcanology

The chemistry of erupted clinopyroxene crystals (±equilibrium liquids) have been widely used to deduce the pressures and temperatures of magma storage in volcanic arcs. However, the wide variety of different equations parametrizing the relationship between mineral and melt compositions and intensive variables such as pressure and temperature yield vastly different results, with implications for [...]

Estimation and Uncertainty Quantification of Magma Interaction Times using Statistical Emulation

Luca Insolia, Stéphane Guerrier, Chiara Paola Montagna, et al.

Published: 2022-12-02
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Evolution of volcanic plumbing systems towards eruptions of different styles and sizes largely depends on processes at crustal depths that are outside our observational capabilities. These processes can be modeled and the outputs of the simulations can be compared with the chemistry of the erupted products, geophysical and geodetic data to retrieve information on the architecture of the plumbing [...]

Barometers behaving badly: Assessing the influence of analytical and experimental uncertainty on clinopyroxene thermobarometry calculations at crustal conditions

Penny E Wieser, Adam J Kent, Christy Till, et al.

Published: 2022-11-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Mineral Physics, Volcanology

The composition of clinopyroxene and Clinopyroxene-Liquid (Cpx-Liq) pairs are frequently used to calculate crystallization/equilibration pressures in igneous systems. While canonical uncertainties are often assigned to calculated pressures based on fits to calibration or test datasets, the sources of these uncertainties (and thus ways to reduce them) have not been rigorously assessed. We show [...]

Lithospheric structure and melting processes in southeast Australia: new constraints from joint probabilistic inversions of 3D magnetotelluric and seismic data

Maria Constanza Manassero, Sinan Özaydin, Juan Carlos Afonso, et al.

Published: 2022-11-18
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

The thermochemical structure of the lithosphere exerts control on melting mechanisms in the mantle as well as the location of volcanism and ore deposits. Imaging the complex interactions between the lithosphere and asthenospheric mantle requires the joint inversion of multiple data sets and their uncertainties. In particular, the combination of seismic velocity and electrical conductivity with [...]

Evolution of intraplate magmatism atop a mantle plume: geochemical and chronological analysis of Shawahit Basalt, Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia

Gareth G Roberts, Patrick Ball

Published: 2022-11-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Harrat Rahat is the largest volcanic  eld in Saudi Arabia and has been active from ~10 Ma to the present day. Due to its close proximity to important population centres, Harrat Rahat's recent eruptions, the Medinah lava flows (< 1.7 Ma), have been extensively studied to identify volcanic risk. However, the evolution of Harrat Rahat's most extensive and oldest lava flows, known collectively as the [...]

The missing carbon budget puzzle piece: shallow-water hydrothermal vents contribution to global CO2 fluxes

Alessia Bastianoni, Martina Cascone, Joost M de Moor, et al.

Published: 2022-11-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Volcanology

The release of CO2 gases from volcanoes and their secondary geothermal manifestations are an important contributor to the global carbon budget. While degassing from mid ocean ridges is relatively well-constrained, the contribution of shallow submarine volcanic degassing to the atmosphere is less clear. Shallow-water hydrothermal vents are common seafloor features present at depths shallower than [...]

Fire From Volcanic Activity: Quantifying the threat from an understudied hazard

Jia Yong Quah, Josh L Hayes, Rebecca H Fitzgerald, et al.

Published: 2022-10-30
Subjects: Risk Analysis, Volcanology

Fire from volcanic activity (FFVA) is a highly dangerous and largely understudied hazard arising from volcanic activity. FFVA can be caused by a variety of volcanic hazards and can greatly compound the damage and losses associated with volcanic activity, in addition to creating complications for event response and mitigation. In this study, we develop a FFVA ignition probability model underpinned [...]

Assessing the magnitude of volcanic risk to global shipping

Paul Cragg, Pete Rowley, Samuel J Mitchell

Published: 2022-10-28
Subjects: Nature and Society Relations, Volcanology

With a global economy dependent on marine traffic there has been little study or recognition of the risk posed to this industry by volcanism. Most major shipping lanes pass close to active volcanoes, or through straits and channels which can be impacted by volcanic debris. In this paper we set out the main hazards presented by volcanoes to shipping, and reflect on the magnitude of risk that these [...]

How inclusive is volcanology? Insights from global bibliometric analyses

Geoffrey A Lerner, George T Williams, Elinor S Meredith, et al.

Published: 2022-09-15
Subjects: Library and Information Science, Volcanology

In this study, we use bibliometric methods to assess the way in which local researchers are included in volcanological publications by comparing the affiliation of authors with the country in which researched volcanoes are located. Globally, 40% of articles about a specific volcano do not include an author whose affiliation is based in the country where the volcano is located (a locally domiciled [...]

A genetic model of the magnetite-apatite deposits on El Laco volcano by extrusion of iron-rich melt

Tobias Keller, Fernando Tornos, John M. Hanchar, et al.

Published: 2022-08-25
Subjects: Dynamical Systems, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geochemistry, Geology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Magnetite-apatite deposits are important sources of iron and other metals. A prominent exam- ple are the magnetite lavas at the El Laco volcano, Northern Chile. Their formation processes remain debated. Here, we test the genetic hypothesis that an Fe-rich melt separated from silicate magma and ascended along collapse-related fractures. We complement recent analy- ses with thermodynamic modelling [...]


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