Filtering by Subject: Volcanology

Hydrous Melting of the Metasomatized Asthenospheric Mantle Below East Asia Producing LOMU Type Alkali Basalts: New insights from Higashi-Matsuura rear-arc Basalts, Kyushu, Japan

Bidisha Dey, Tomoyuki Shibata, Masako Yoshikawa

Published: 2023-08-30
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Volcanology

Alkali basalts with distinctive time-integrated low U/Pb (low µ, LOMU) have been reported in East Asia from the arc, rear-arc, forearc and intraplate volcanoes in northeast China, Korea, Sea of Japan, and the Petit Spot near the Japan Trench. The origin of these alkali basalts in East Asia is controversial due to the complex geochemical and tectonic signatures reported from this region. We report [...]

Monogenetic volcanoes as windows into transcrustal mush: A case study of Slamet and Loyang volcanoes, Central Java

Nicholas Dewitt Barber, Sophie L Baldwin, Marie Edmonds, et al.

Published: 2023-08-26
Subjects: Volcanology

Monogenetic volcanic "fields (MVFs) are commonly associated with long-lived polygenetic composite volcanoes in many tectonic settings. The association between polygenetic and monogenetic volcanoes has raised questions as to the source of monogenetic melts – specifically, whether they are derived from the transcrustal mush underlying a nearby polygenetic volcano, or from a different batch of [...]

Determining the Pressure – Temperature – Composition (P-T-X) conditions of magma storage

Penny E Wieser, Matthew Gleeson, Simon Matthews, et al.

Published: 2023-08-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Determining the pressures and temperatures at which melts are stored in the crust and upper mantle, and the major element composition, redox state and volatile contents of these melts, is vital to constrain the structure and dynamics of magmatic plumbing systems. In turn, constraining these parameters helps understand the geochemical and structural evolution of the Earth’s lithosphere, and [...]

Spontaneous Unsteadiness and Sorting in Pyroclastic Density Currents and their Deposits

Pete Rowley, Rebecca Williams, Matthew Johnson, et al.

Published: 2023-08-22
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) pose substantial risk to populations living on and around active volcanoes, but their structure and internal dynamics are poorly understood. Much of this understanding is derived from interpretation of their widespread deposits. Scaled experiments are able to probe different conditions, to explore how changing flow dynamics relate to the wide variety of [...]

Tephra dispersal and composition reveal the explosive onset of a large basaltic fissure eruption: Timanfaya, Lanzarote, 1730–1736 CE

James K. Muller, Marc-Antoine Longpré

Published: 2023-08-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

Basaltic fissure eruptions are chiefly characterized by sizable emissions of lava flows and volcanic gases, posing significant hazards. However, such eruptions may be punctuated by explosive episodes, which are comparatively poorly understood but may have important volcanic hazard and environmental implications. The 1730–1736 CE Timanfaya eruption on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, is a large basaltic [...]

Innovating and networking global geochemical data resources through OneGeochemistry

Alexander Martijn Prent, Dominik C Hezel, Marthe Klöcking, et al.

Published: 2023-06-14
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Databases and Information Systems, Geochemistry, Geology, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Volcanology

A vision of the not-to-distant future: Imagine yourself as a researcher who is making plans for fieldwork in the Andes Mountains. You are behind your computer and load a three-dimensional visualisation of the Earth and its geology to investigate the research already done in the southern Patagonian regions. You zoom in to the mountain range of interest and select various data layers to show [...]

Volcanic lightning reveals umbrella cloud dynamics of the January 2022 Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai eruption

Paul Antony Jarvis, Grant Caldwell, Chris Noble, et al.

Published: 2023-06-07
Subjects: Volcanology

The 15 January 2022 eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai (HTHH) significantly impacted the Kingdom of Tonga as well as the wider Pacific region. The eruption column attained a maximum height of 58 km whilst the umbrella cloud reached a diameter approaching 600 km within about 3 hours. The intensity of volcanic lightning generated during the eruption was also unprecedented, with the Vaisala [...]

Comment on ‘The magmatic architecture and evolution of the Chang’e-5 lunar basalts’ Penny E. Wieser1, Christy Till2, Adam Kent3, Matthew Gleeson1

Penny E Wieser, Christy Till, Adam Kent, et al.

Published: 2023-05-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Luo et al.1 present exciting new data on lunar basalt samples erupted at ~2 Ga, and brought to Earth by the Chang’e-5 (CE-5) mission. These samples offer important new opportunities to understand lunar magmatic systems. Luo et al.1 use Clinopyroxene-Liquid (Cpx-Liq) thermobarometry and pMELTS modelling of mineral compositions to determine the pressures (P) and temperatures (T) of magma storage on [...]

Developing the future visions for seamless multi-hazard warning for volcanic eruptions

Andrew Tupper, Graham Leonard

Published: 2023-05-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Volcanology

Much work has been done to build arrangements between volcanology and meteorology to handle the aviation risks from volcanic ash. This workshop will discuss how to approach collaborative arrangements for other volcanic hazards to the public, particularly where a multi-disciplinary approach is required. These hazards include tsunamis, ashfall, rainfall-induced dome collapses, lahars, pumice, [...]

Geophysical and Geochemical Constraints on Magma Storage Depths along the Cascade Arc: Knowns and Unknowns

Penny E Wieser, Adam Kent, Christy Till, et al.

Published: 2023-05-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The iconic volcanoes of the Cascade arc stretch from Lassen Volcanic Center in northern California, through Oregon and Washington, to the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in British Columbia. Recent studies have reviewed differences in the distribution and eruptive volumes of vents, as well as variations in geochemical compositions and heat flux along strike (amongst other characteristics). We investigate [...]

SilicH2O: a graphical user interface for processing silicate glass Raman spectra and quantifying H2O

Thomas Daniel van Gerve, Olivier Namur

Published: 2023-04-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Volcanology

H2O contents of magmas strongly impact the explosivity of volcanic eruptions, as well as their rheological properties and crystallisation behaviour. Accurate analyses of H2O in magmatic liquids are therefore vital for our understanding of the dynamics of magmatic processes and eruptions. Raman spectroscopy provides an accessible, affordable and high spatial resolution technique for [...]

DiadFit: An Open-Source Python3 Tool for Peak fitting of Raman Data from silicate melts and CO2 fluids

Penny E Wieser, Charlotte L DeVitre

Published: 2023-04-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

We present DiadFit - an open-source Python3 tool for efficient processing of Raman spectroscopy data collected from silicate melts and CO2 fluids. DiadFit can fit Fermi diads, hot bands, 13C peaks, peaks from other gas species (e.g. SO2. N2), and Ne lines using various background and peak shapes. Thus, it is highly suited for workflows involving melt inclusion vapour bubbles and fluid inclusions [...]

Stationary surface waves and antidunes in dense pyroclastic density currents

Pete Rowley, Guido Giordano, Aurora Silleni, et al.

Published: 2023-03-28
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Sedimentology, Volcanology

Stationary antidunes are a product of critical flow in open channel systems, but with poor preservation potential. They are related to the existence of stationary surface waves in the overriding current, but their existence in the dense pyroclastic density current regime has been unrecognized to date. Experiments presented here demonstrate that surface waves in simulated dense pyroclastic density [...]

Effects of concentrated and intense heavy rain on phreatic eruptions ~Based on a case study of the phreatic eruptions of Mt. Ontake in Japan-~

Nobuo Uchida

Published: 2023-02-27
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

"This paper is a non-peer reviewed preprint submitted to EarthArXiv" For humans living in an economic zone adjacent to volcanoes, the reality of unpredictable eruptions is a constant concern. This paper presents a new view on the phreatic eruption process of Mt. Ontake, Japan. The purpose of this posting is to find ways to reduce casualties from phreatic eruptions. As a background, there is the [...]

Identifying analogues for Melimoyu, a long-dormant and data-limited volcano in Chile, through hierarchical clustering

Vanesa Burgos, Susanna F Jenkins, Laura Bono Troncoso, et al.

Published: 2023-02-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Volcanology

Melimoyu is a long-dormant and data-limited volcano in the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) in Chile with only two confirmed Holocene eruptions (VEI 5). Determining the frequency-magnitude relationship for Melimoyu is challenging due to data scarcity. To supplement the eruption records, we identify analogue volcanoes for Melimoyu (i.e., volcanoes that behave similarly and are identified through [...]


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