Filtering by Subject: Volcanology

Estimating the mass eruption rate of volcanic eruptions from the plume height using Bayesian regression with historical data: the MERPH model

Mark James Woodhouse

Published: 2024-04-19
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability, Volcanology

The mass eruption rate (MER) of an explosive volcanic eruption is a commonly used quantifier of the magnitude of the eruption, and estimating it is importance in managing volcanic hazards. The physical connection between the MER and the rise height of the eruption column results in a scaling relationship between these quantities, allowing one to be inferred from the other. Eruption source [...]

Digitising sandbox experiments using open-source Structure-from-Motion/photogrammetry/Digital Image Correlation package MicMac

Olivier Galland, Luc Girod, Sonja Greiner, et al.

Published: 2024-04-15
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Structure-from-Motion and photogrammetry have been implemented in sandbox models to monitor deformation of their surface. Various software packages are available, either open-source of commercial. Some commercial packages are intuitive press-button equipment; these can be very practical to use, but they can be very expensive and unaffordable for most academic laboratories. Another option is [...]

Assessing the mean output rate (MOR) of past effusive basaltic eruptions - a look at the postglacial volcanism of the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland

Birgir Vilhelm Oskarsson, Robert A. Askew, Halldór Guðmundsson

Published: 2024-03-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Volcanological approaches for assessing the effusion rate of past effusive volcanism are of great importance, to enable proper evaluation of the eruption magnitude and past tectono-magmatic conditions which are relevant for mitigating future volcanism. The reactivation of volcanism on the Reykjanes peninsula in 2021 after an 800-year hiatus, has incited the need for assessing the potential scale [...]

Chemical interdiffusion between Na-tephritic and phonolitic melts at different T, H2O and fO2

Diego González-García, Florian Pohl, Felix Marxer, et al.

Published: 2024-02-21
Subjects: Geochemistry, Volcanology

The diffusive exchange of major elements in Na-series tephrite-phonolite diffusion couples with compositions relevant to Canary Islands magmatism were determined at 300 MPa and variable H2O concentrations (0.3 to 3.3 wt.%), temperature (1150 to 1300°C) and fO2 (NNO-1.5 to NNO+1.7). Composition-dependent effective binary diffusion coefficients (D) were determined from concentration-distance [...]

Subsurface microbial community structure shifts along the geological features of the Central American Volcanic Arc

Marco Basili, Timothy J. Rogers, Mayuko Nakagawa, et al.

Published: 2024-02-05
Subjects: Biodiversity, Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Microbiology, Volcanology

Subduction of the Cocos and Nazca oceanic plates beneath the Caribbean plate drives the upward movement of deep fluids enriched in carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and iron along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). These compounds fuel diverse subsurface microbial communities that in turn alter the distribution, redox state, and isotopic composition of these compounds. Microbial community [...]

Magmatic Controls on Volcanic Sulfur Emissions at the Iceland Hotspot

Eemu Ranta, Sæmundur Ari Halldórsson, Bergrún A. Óladóttir, et al.

Published: 2024-01-14
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Volcanology

Outgassing of S (as SO2) is one of the principal hazards posed by volcanic eruptions. However, S emission potentials of most volcanoes globally are poorly constrained due to a short observational record and an incomplete understanding of the magmatic processes that influence pre-eruptive S concentrations. Here, we use a compilation of published and new data from melt inclusions—which preserve [...]

A shake and a surge: Assessing the possibility of an earthquake-triggered eruption at Steamboat Geyser

Mara H. Reed, Anna Barth, Taka'aki Taira, et al.

Published: 2024-01-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

When and why earthquakes trigger the eruption of magma, mud, and water remain unclear. On 18 September 2022, Steamboat Geyser in Yellowstone, USA erupted 8.25 hours after a local M3.9 earthquake. The distribution of Steamboat eruption intervals suggests a low probability of erupting so soon after the earthquake by chance. A seismometer 340 m from Steamboat recorded seismic waves with a peak [...]

Medieval and recent SO2 budgets in the Reykjanes Peninsula: implication for future hazard

Alberto Caracciolo, Eniko Bali, Eemu Ranta, et al.

Published: 2023-11-23
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Volcanology

Exposure to volcanic SO2 can have adverse effects on human health, with severe respiratory disorders documented on short- and long-term timescales. Here, we use melt inclusion and groundmass glass data to calculate potential syn-eruptive SO2 emissions during the medieval and the recent 2021-2024 eruptions across the Reykjanes peninsula, the most populated area of Iceland that has recently [...]

Plagioclase-saturated melt hygrothermobarometry and plagioclase-melt equilibria using machine learning

Kyra S. Cutler, Mike Cassidy, Jon Blundy

Published: 2023-11-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Compositions of plagioclase-melt pairs are commonly used to constrain temperatures (T), water contents (H2O) and pressures (P) of pre-eruptive magma storage. However, previous plagioclase-based thermometers, hygrometers, and barometers can have significant uncertainties, mainly resulting from the lack of error propagation of independently-constrained input variables (i.e., T/ H2O/P), leading to [...]

Helium, carbon and nitrogen isotope evidence for slab influence on volcanic gas emissions at Rabaul caldera, Papua New Guinea

Brendan T. McCormick Kilbride, Peter H. Barry, Tobias P Fischer, et al.

Published: 2023-11-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The chemical and isotopic composition of the gases emitted by subduction zone volcanoes can provide insights into the origin of magmatic volatiles. In volcanic arcs, magmatic volatiles and therefore emitted gases can be supplied from the mantle, the subducting slab, or the rocks of the arc crust. Determining the relative contributions of these distinct sources is important for understanding the [...]

PyIRoGlass: An Open-Source, Bayesian MCMC Algorithm for Fitting Baselines to FTIR Spectra of Basaltic-Andesitic Glasses

Sarah Christine Shi, William Henry Towbin, Terry Plank, et al.

Published: 2023-11-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Quantifying volatile concentrations in magmas is critical for understanding magma storage, phase equilibria, and eruption processes. We present PyIRoGlass, an open-source Python package for quantifying H$_2$O and CO$_2$ species concentrations in the transmission FTIR spectra of basaltic to andesitic glasses. We leverage a database of naturally degassed melt inclusions and back-arc basin basalts [...]

Petrographic and geochemical evidence for a complex magmatic plumbing system beneath Bagana volcano, Papua New Guinea

Joshua Robert Brown, Iris Buisman, Maria Paula Castellanos Melendez, et al.

Published: 2023-10-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Volcanology

Bagana is a persistently active stratovolcano located on Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea. Characteristic activity consists of prolonged lava effusion over months to years, with occasional shifts to explosive vulcanian or subplinian eruptions which threaten surrounding communities. Satellite observations have shown that Bagana is a major SO2 emitter, particularly during eruptive intervals. [...]

New insights into the Upper Pleistocene directed blast eruption, Popocatépetl volcano, México

R. Marcela Lira Beltrán, Lizeth Caballero, Delphine Sourisseau, et al.

Published: 2023-10-30
Subjects: Geology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

Volcanic eruptions of the directed blast type can affect areas of hundreds of square kilometres and reach more than 25 km from the crater, as observed in the directed explosions of the Bezymianny (1956) and Mt. St. Helens (1980) volcanoes. These directed eruptions are characterized by powerful explosions with a significant lateral component that can travel at speeds above 100 m/s, which includes [...]

A shift in the Sr isotopic composition of the magmatic source triggering 2019 paroxysmal eruptions at Stromboli Volcano

Christian J. Renggli, Joachim Krause, Felix Genske, et al.

Published: 2023-10-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The persistent volcanic activity of Stromboli Volcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy, is interrupted by paroxysmal eruptions on a decadal interval. In 2019, two strong paroxysms on July 3rd and August 28th, ended a more than a decade long period of regular strombolian activity. During normal strombolian activity the volcano erupts highly porphyritic scoria and lava (HP)20 with a shoshonitic basalt [...]

Generation of LOMU type alkali basalts in East Asia by melting and melt metasomatism of the asthenospheric mantle by a Paleoproterozoic subducted slab component

Bidisha Dey, Tomoyuki Shibata, Masako Yoshikawa

Published: 2023-08-30
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Volcanology

The origin of alkali basalts with distinctive time-integrated low U/Pb (low µ, LOMU) from East Asia is controversial due to the complex geochemical and tectonic signatures reported from this region. We report new data on the petrology and geochemistry of the Higashi-Matsuura and Kita-Matsuura alkali basalts from southwest Japan, which confirm the presence of a LOMU-type mantle component below the [...]


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