Filtering by Subject: Volcanology

PyIRoGlass: An Open-Source, Bayesian MCMC Algorithm for Fitting Baselines to FTIR Spectra of Basaltic-Andesitic Glasses

Sarah Christine Shi, William Henry Towbin, Terry Plank, et al.

Published: 2023-11-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Quantifying volatile concentrations in magmas is critical for understanding magma storage, phase equilibria, and eruption processes. We present PyIRoGlass, an open-source Python package for quantifying H2O and CO2 species concentrations in the transmission FTIR spectra of basaltic to andesitic glasses. We leverage a database of naturally degassed melt inclusions and back-arc basin basalts to [...]

Petrographic and geochemical evidence for a complex magmatic plumbing system beneath Bagana volcano, Papua New Guinea

Joshua Robert Brown, Iris Buisman, Maria Paula Castellanos Melendez, et al.

Published: 2023-10-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Volcanology

Bagana is a persistently active stratovolcano located on Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea. Characteristic activity consists of prolonged lava effusion over months to years, with occasional shifts to explosive vulcanian or subplinian eruptions which threaten surrounding communities. Satellite observations have shown that Bagana is a major SO2 emitter, particularly during eruptive intervals. [...]

New insights into the Upper Pleistocene directed blast eruption, Popocatépetl volcano, México

R. Marcela Lira Beltrán, Lizeth Caballero, Delphine Sourisseau, et al.

Published: 2023-10-30
Subjects: Geology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

Volcanic eruptions of the directed blast type can affect areas of hundreds of square kilometres and reach more than 25 km from the crater, as observed in the directed explosions of the Bezymianny (1956) and Mt. St. Helens (1980) volcanoes. These directed eruptions are characterized by powerful explosions with a significant lateral component that can travel at speeds above 100 m/s, which includes [...]

A shift in the Sr isotopic composition of the magmatic source triggering 2019 paroxysmal eruptions at Stromboli Volcano

Christian J. Renggli, Joachim Krause, Felix Genske, et al.

Published: 2023-10-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The persistent volcanic activity of Stromboli Volcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy, is interrupted by paroxysmal eruptions on a decadal interval. In 2019, two strong paroxysms on July 3rd and August 28th, ended a more than a decade long period of regular strombolian activity. During normal strombolian activity the volcano erupts highly porphyritic scoria and lava (HP)20 with a shoshonitic basalt [...]

Generation of LOMU type alkali basalts in East Asia by melting and melt metasomatism of the asthenospheric mantle by a Paleoproterozoic subducted slab component

Bidisha Dey, Tomoyuki Shibata, Masako Yoshikawa

Published: 2023-08-30
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Volcanology

The origin of alkali basalts with distinctive time-integrated low U/Pb (low µ, LOMU) from East Asia is controversial due to the complex geochemical and tectonic signatures reported from this region. We report new data on the petrology and geochemistry of the Higashi-Matsuura and Kita-Matsuura alkali basalts from southwest Japan, which confirm the presence of a LOMU-type mantle component below the [...]

Monogenetic volcanoes as windows into transcrustal mush: A case study of Slamet and Loyang volcanoes, Central Java

Nicholas Dewitt Barber, Sophie L Baldwin, Marie Edmonds, et al.

Published: 2023-08-26
Subjects: Volcanology

Monogenetic volcanic "fields (MVFs) are commonly associated with long-lived polygenetic composite volcanoes in many tectonic settings. The association between polygenetic and monogenetic volcanoes has raised questions as to the source of monogenetic melts – specifically, whether they are derived from the transcrustal mush underlying a nearby polygenetic volcano, or from a different batch of [...]

Determining the Pressure – Temperature – Composition (P-T-X) conditions of magma storage

Penny E Wieser, Matthew Gleeson, Simon Matthews, et al.

Published: 2023-08-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Determining the pressures and temperatures at which melts are stored in the crust and upper mantle, and the major element composition, redox state and volatile contents of these melts, is vital to constrain the structure and dynamics of magmatic plumbing systems. In turn, constraining these parameters helps understand the geochemical and structural evolution of the Earth’s lithosphere, and [...]

Spontaneous Unsteadiness and Sorting in Pyroclastic Density Currents and their Deposits

Pete Rowley, Rebecca Williams, Matthew Johnson, et al.

Published: 2023-08-22
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) pose substantial risk to populations living on and around active volcanoes, but their structure and internal dynamics are poorly understood. Much of this understanding is derived from interpretation of their widespread deposits. Scaled experiments are able to probe different conditions, to explore how changing flow dynamics relate to the wide variety of [...]

Tephra dispersal and composition reveal the explosive onset of a large basaltic fissure eruption: Timanfaya, Lanzarote, 1730–1736 CE

James K. Muller, Marc-Antoine Longpré

Published: 2023-08-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

Basaltic fissure eruptions are chiefly characterized by sizable emissions of lava flows and volcanic gases, posing significant hazards. However, such eruptions may be punctuated by explosive episodes, which are comparatively poorly understood but may have important volcanic hazard and environmental implications. The 1730–1736 CE Timanfaya eruption on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, is a large basaltic [...]

Innovating and networking global geochemical data resources through OneGeochemistry

Alexander Martijn Prent, Dominik C Hezel, Marthe Klöcking, et al.

Published: 2023-06-14
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Databases and Information Systems, Geochemistry, Geology, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Volcanology

A vision of the not-to-distant future: Imagine yourself as a researcher who is making plans for fieldwork in the Andes Mountains. You are behind your computer and load a three-dimensional visualisation of the Earth and its geology to investigate the research already done in the southern Patagonian regions. You zoom in to the mountain range of interest and select various data layers to show [...]

Volcanic lightning reveals umbrella cloud dynamics of the January 2022 Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai eruption

Paul Antony Jarvis, Grant Caldwell, Chris Noble, et al.

Published: 2023-06-07
Subjects: Volcanology

The 15 January 2022 eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai (HTHH) significantly impacted the Kingdom of Tonga as well as the wider Pacific region. The eruption column attained a maximum height of 58 km whilst the umbrella cloud reached a diameter approaching 600 km within about 3 hours. The intensity of volcanic lightning generated during the eruption was also unprecedented, with the Vaisala [...]

Comment on ‘The magmatic architecture and evolution of the Chang’e-5 lunar basalts’ Penny E. Wieser1, Christy Till2, Adam Kent3, Matthew Gleeson1

Penny E Wieser, Christy Till, Adam Kent, et al.

Published: 2023-05-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Luo et al.1 present exciting new data on lunar basalt samples erupted at ~2 Ga, and brought to Earth by the Chang’e-5 (CE-5) mission. These samples offer important new opportunities to understand lunar magmatic systems. Luo et al.1 use Clinopyroxene-Liquid (Cpx-Liq) thermobarometry and pMELTS modelling of mineral compositions to determine the pressures (P) and temperatures (T) of magma storage on [...]

Developing the future visions for seamless multi-hazard warning for volcanic eruptions

Andrew Tupper, Graham Leonard

Published: 2023-05-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Volcanology

Much work has been done to build arrangements between volcanology and meteorology to handle the aviation risks from volcanic ash. This workshop will discuss how to approach collaborative arrangements for other volcanic hazards to the public, particularly where a multi-disciplinary approach is required. These hazards include tsunamis, ashfall, rainfall-induced dome collapses, lahars, pumice, [...]

Geophysical and Geochemical Constraints on Magma Storage Depths along the Cascade Arc: Knowns and Unknowns

Penny E Wieser, Adam Kent, Christy Till, et al.

Published: 2023-05-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The iconic volcanoes of the Cascade arc stretch from Lassen Volcanic Center in northern California, through Oregon and Washington, to the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in British Columbia. Recent studies have reviewed differences in the distribution and eruptive volumes of vents, as well as variations in geochemical compositions and heat flux along strike (amongst other characteristics). We investigate [...]

SilicH2O: a graphical user interface for processing silicate glass Raman spectra and quantifying H2O

Thomas Daniel van Gerve, Olivier Namur

Published: 2023-04-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Volcanology

H2O contents of magmas strongly impact the explosivity of volcanic eruptions, as well as their rheological properties and crystallisation behaviour. Accurate analyses of H2O in magmatic liquids are therefore vital for our understanding of the dynamics of magmatic processes and eruptions. Raman spectroscopy provides an accessible, affordable and high spatial resolution technique for [...]


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