Filtering by Subject: Volcanology

Fire From Volcanic Activity: Quantifying the threat from an understudied hazard

Jia Yong Quah, Josh L Hayes, Rebecca H Fitzgerald, et al.

Published: 2022-10-30
Subjects: Risk Analysis, Volcanology

Fire from volcanic activity (FFVA) is a highly dangerous and largely understudied hazard arising from volcanic activity. FFVA can be caused by a variety of volcanic hazards and can greatly compound the damage and losses associated with volcanic activity, in addition to creating complications for event response and mitigation. In this study, we develop a FFVA ignition probability model underpinned [...]

Assessing the magnitude of volcanic risk to global shipping

Paul Cragg, Pete Rowley, Samuel J Mitchell

Published: 2022-10-28
Subjects: Nature and Society Relations, Volcanology

With a global economy dependent on marine traffic there has been little study or recognition of the risk posed to this industry by volcanism. Most major shipping lanes pass close to active volcanoes, or through straits and channels which can be impacted by volcanic debris. In this paper we set out the main hazards presented by volcanoes to shipping, and reflect on the magnitude of risk that these [...]

How inclusive is volcanology? Insights from global bibliometric analyses

Geoffrey A Lerner, George T Williams, Elinor S Meredith, et al.

Published: 2022-09-15
Subjects: Library and Information Science, Volcanology

In this study, we use bibliometric methods to assess the way in which local researchers are included in volcanological publications by comparing the affiliation of authors with the country in which researched volcanoes are located. Globally, 40% of articles about a specific volcano do not include an author whose affiliation is based in the country where the volcano is located (a locally domiciled [...]

A genetic model of the magnetite-apatite deposits on El Laco volcano by extrusion of iron-rich melt

Tobias Keller, Fernando Tornos, John M. Hanchar, et al.

Published: 2022-08-25
Subjects: Dynamical Systems, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geochemistry, Geology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Magnetite-apatite deposits are important sources of iron and other metals. A prominent exam- ple are the magnetite lavas at the El Laco volcano, Northern Chile. Their formation processes remain debated. Here, we test the genetic hypothesis that an Fe-rich melt separated from silicate magma and ascended along collapse-related fractures. We complement recent analy- ses with thermodynamic modelling [...]

Slab to back-arc to arc: fluid and melt pathways through the mantle wedge beneath the Lesser Antilles

Stephen Paul Hicks, Lidong Bie, Catherine Rychert, et al.

Published: 2022-07-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Volatiles expelled from subducted plates melt the overlying warm mantle, feeding arc volcanism. However, debates continue over the factors controlling melt generation and transport and how these determine the placement of volcanoes. To broaden our synoptic view of these fundamental mantle wedge processes, we image seismic attenuation beneath the Lesser Antilles arc, an end-member system that [...]

Reconstructing Rotomahana Basin topography to disclose the lost White Terraces─ New Zealand’s Eighth Wonder of the World

Rex Bunn

Published: 2022-07-05
Subjects: Geographic Information Sciences, Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical and Environmental Geography, Spatial Science, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

The greatest geoscience and tourist attractions in the southern hemisphere were the Pink and White Terraces, the lost Eighth Wonder of the World. British, American and European tourists bypassed local calcareous terraces, for the sea voyage to New Zealand where the siliceous terraces astonished a global audience. Their allure remains. In 1886, the Mount Tarawera eruption buried the terraces. They [...]

The Eighth Wonder of the World in New Zealand─ the third, Black Terrace

Rex Bunn

Published: 2022-06-28
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Planetary Sciences, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

The greatest tourism and geoscience attraction in the southern hemisphere, in the nineteenth century were the siliceous Pink and White Terraces, the lost Eighth Wonder of the World in New Zealand. In 1886, the Mount Tarawera eruption buried the terraces. In the absence of any government survey or evidence of their locations or destruction; debate over their survival continued until the 1940s. [...]

Ascent rates of 3D fractures driven by a finite batch of buoyant fluid

Timothy Davis, Eleonora Rivalta, Delphine Smittarello, et al.

Published: 2022-06-20
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Geology, Glaciology, Mechanics of Materials, Volcanology

Propagation of fluid-filled fractures by fluid buoyancy is important in a variety of settings, from magmatic dykes and veins to water-filled crevasses in glaciers. Industrial hydro-fracturing utilises fluid-driven fractures to increase the permeability of rock formations, but few studies have quantified the effect of buoyancy on fracture pathways in this context. Analytical approximations for the [...]

Advances in seismic imaging of magma and crystal mush

Michele Paulatto, Emilie Hooft, Kajetan Chrapkiewicz, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Seismic imaging methods have provided detailed three-dimensional constraints on the physical properties of magmatic systems leading to invaluable insight into the storage, differentiation and dynamics of magma. These constraints have been crucial to the development of our modern understanding of magmatic systems. However, there are still outstanding knowledge gaps resulting from the challenges [...]

The CREp 36Cl exposure age calculator: development version “dev”

Irene Schimmelpfennig, Pierre-Henri BLARD, Jim Tesson, et al.

Published: 2022-05-04
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Chlorine-36 (36Cl) is currently the only in situ cosmogenic nuclide applicable in carbonates, Ca- and K-rich feldspars and aphyric silicate rocks. Because the production reactions of 36Cl are more numerous and complex than those of other cosmogenic nuclides (e.g. 10Be, 3He), comprehensive and user-friendly calculators are essential for routine application of 36Cl to Earth surface research [...]

Magnetic fabrics reveal three-dimensional flow processes within elongate magma fingers at the margin of the Shonkin Sag laccolith (MT, USA)

Jonas Köpping, Alexander R. Cruden, Craig Magee, et al.

Published: 2022-04-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Unravelling magma flow in ancient sheet intrusions is critical to understanding how magma pathways develop and feed volcanic eruptions. Analyzing the shape preferred orientation of minerals in intrusive rocks can provide information on magma flow, because crystals may align parallel to the primary flow direction. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is an established method to quantify [...]

Late Glacial and Holocene Palaeolake History of the Última Esperanza Region of Southern Patagonia

Stephen J Roberts, Robert D McCulloch, Joseph Frederick Emmings, et al.

Published: 2022-03-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

We undertook multiproxy analyses on two sediment cores from Lago Pato, a small lake basin at 51°S topographically separated from Lago del Toro in Torres del Paine (TdP), to provide insights into glacier dynamics and lake level change in the TdP and Última Esperanza region over the last ~30,000 cal a BP (30 ka). Lago Pato is situated in a region overridden by the Southern Patagonian Icefield [...]

Magma chamber detected beneath an arc volcano with high-resolution velocity images

Kajetan Chrapkiewicz, Michele Paulatto, Benjamin Heath, et al.

Published: 2022-03-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Arc volcanoes are underlain by complex systems of molten-rock reservoirs ranging from melt-poor mush zones to melt-rich magma chambers. Petrological and satellite data indicate that eruptible magma chambers form in the topmost few kilometres of the crust. However, very few chambers have ever been definitively located, suggesting that most are too short-lived or too small to be imaged, which has [...]

PyMelt: An extensible Python engine for mantle melting calculations

Simon Matthews, Kevin Wong, Matthew Lloyd Morgan Gleeson

Published: 2022-02-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Modelling the melting of Earth’s mantle is crucial for understanding the distribution of volcanic activity on Earth and for testing models of mantle convection and mantle lithological heterogeneity. PyMelt is a new open-source Python library for calculating the melting behaviour of multi-lithology mantle and can be used to predict a number of geophysical and petrological observations, including [...]

S-wave modeling of the Showa-Shinzan lava dome in Usu Volcano, Northern Japan, from seismic observations

Akiko Takeo, Kiwamu Nishida, Hiroshi Aoyama, et al.

Published: 2022-02-09
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

To obtain an internal S-wave velocity structure, we conducted a passive seismic campaign with 21 1-Hz seismometers on and around the Showa-Shinzan lava dome, which emerged during the 1943–1945 eruption of Usu Volcano, Japan. Before the campaign, we calibrated seismometers and found slight phase-response differences between seismometers of less than 1–2 degrees. After the campaign, we extracted [...]


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