Preprints

Search for indonesia (49 results)

The environmental impacts of palm oil in context

Erik Meijaard, Thomas Brooks, Kimberly Carlson, et al.

Published: 2020-01-10
Subjects: Agriculture, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Food Science, Life Sciences, Other Food Science, Other Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Delivering the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires balancing demands on land between agriculture (SDG 2) and biodiversity (SDG 15). The production of vegetable oils in general, and palm oil in particular, is perhaps the most controversial illustration of these trade-offs. Global annual demand for vegetable oil for food, animal feed and fuel is currently at 210 million tons1 (Mt), with [...]

Magnetite biomineralization in ferruginous waters and early Earth evolution

Kohen Witt Bauer, James Martin Byrne, Paul Kenward, et al.

Published: 2020-01-09
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Burial of large quantities of magnetite (Fe(II)Fe(III)2O4) in iron formations (IFs) likely contributed to the protracted oxidation of Earth’s surface during the Precambrian Eons. Magnetite can form through a diversity of biological and abiotic pathways and its preservation in IFs may thus be variably interpreted as the result of some combination of these processes. Such interpretations thus give [...]

A.I taking over a global climate mapping platform

Rosnita Rosnita, Christian Mathison

Published: 2019-11-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Note: this is a post-print of a published manuscript in Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia with DOI 10.15294/jpii.v5i2.7677. This study focuses on the improvement of prospective teachers science generic skills in learning for earth and space sciences subject using a laboratory-based model. Research methods were Research and Development used mixed methods design, i.e. Embedded Experimental models. [...]

Does a damaged fault zone mitigate the near-field landslide risk during supershear earthquakes?—Application to the 2018 magnitude 7.5 Palu earthquake.

Elif Oral, Huihui Weng, Jean Paul Ampuero

Published: 2019-10-03
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The impact of earthquakes can be severely aggravated by cascading secondary hazards. The 2018 Mw 7.5 Palu, Indonesia earthquake led to devastating tsunamis and landslides, while triggered submarine landslides possibly contributed substantially to generate the tsunami. The rupture was supershear over most of its length, but its speed was unexpectedly low, between the S-wave velocity Vs and [...]

Skillful seasonal prediction of key carbon cycle components: NPP and fire risk

Philip Bett, Karina Williams, Chantelle Burton, et al.

Published: 2019-09-19
Subjects: Climate, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Seasonal forecasts of global CO₂ concentrations rely on the well-documented relationship with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), combined with estimated anthropogenic emissions. Here, we investigate the skill of the GloSea5 seasonal forecasting system for two carbon cycle processes that underlie the global CO₂–ENSO relationship: the impact of meteorological conditions on CO₂ uptake by [...]

Coseismic or Landslide? The source of the 2018 Palu Tsunami

Amy Williamson, Diego Melgar, Xiaohua Xu, et al.

Published: 2019-09-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

On 28 September, 2018, Indonesia was struck by a MW 7.5 strike-slip earthquake. An unexpected tsunami followed, inundating nearby coastlines leading to extensive damage. Given the traditionally non-tsunamigenic mechanism, it is important to ascertain if the source of the tsunami is indeed from coseismic deformation, or something else, such as shaking induced landsliding. Here we determine the [...]

Are we in the right path in using early warning systems?

Venugopal Thandlam, Anna Rutgersson, Hasibur Rahman

Published: 2019-07-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This article focusses on the recent tsunami in Indonesia, and the factors led to a large number of fatalities. We also discussed the failure of early warning systems, steps, methods and technologies, in general, to improve the early warning systems in the future to mitigate the loss of lives and property during these impending disasters. This article is timely as Indonesia has seen one of the [...]

Diagnosing spatial biases and uncertainties in global fire emissions inventories: Indonesia as regional case study

Tianjia Liu, Loretta Mickley, Miriam Marlier, et al.

Published: 2019-02-28
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Models of atmospheric composition rely on fire emissions inventories to reconstruct and project impacts of biomass burning on air quality, public health, climate, ecosystem dynamics, and land-atmosphere exchanges. Many such global inventories use satellite measurements of active fires and/or burned area from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). However, differences across [...]

Reconstructing the Anak Krakatau flank collapse that caused the December 2018 Indonesian tsunami

Rebecca Williams, Pete Rowley, Matthew C. Garthwaite

Published: 2019-02-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Volcanogenic tsunamis are one of the deadliest volcanic phenomena. Understanding their triggering processes and mitigating their effect remains a major challenge. On 22 December 2018, flank failure of the Anak Krakatau volcano in Indonesia generated a tsunami which killed more than 400 people. This event was captured in unprecedented detail by high-resolution satellite imagery and eyewitness [...]

Explosive eruptions with little warning: Experimental petrology and geodetic observations from the 2014 eruption of Kelud, Indonesia

Mike Cassidy, Susanna Ebmeier, Christoph Helo, et al.

Published: 2019-01-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Explosive eruptions that occur with little or no precursory unrest pose the greatest hazards from volcanoes to nearby populations. Here we focus on the pre-eruptive conditions for these explosive events, their triggers and how these eruptions evolve. An example of such an event is the 2014 explosive eruption of Kelud volcano, where we have conducted a set of petrological experiments to understand [...]

Wet rice cultivation was the primary cause of the earthquake-triggered Palu landslides

Kyle Bradley, Rishav Mallick, Dedy Alfian, et al.

Published: 2019-01-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The death toll and economic impact of an earthquake are greatly exacerbated when landslides are triggered by strong ground motion. These slides typically occur in two different contexts: localized failure of steep slopes that pose a major threat to life in areas below; and lateral spreading of nearly flat sediment plains due to shaking-induced liquefaction, which can damage large areas of [...]

Early and persistent supershear rupture of the 2018 Mw 7.5 Palu earthquake

HAN BAO, Jean Paul Ampuero, Lingsen Meng, et al.

Published: 2018-11-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Supershear earthquakes with rupture velocity exceeding shear-wave speeds, previously observed in laboratory experiments and large strike-slip events, often have an initial sub-shear stage before they transition to supershear. In this study, integrated geophysical observations of the 2018 Mw 7.5 Palu, Indonesia earthquake, provide robust evidence of an early and persistent supershear rupture [...]

Mangrove pollen of Indonesia and its suitability as a sea-level indicator

Simon Engelhart, Benjamin Horton, David H. Roberts, et al.

Published: 2018-10-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geography, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

We investigated the mangroves of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, to assess their potential as proxies for reconstructing sea level during the Holocene. Initial investigations confirmed that the mangrove species demonstrate zonations parallel to the shoreline and are dominated by the family Rhizophoraceae with Avicennia, Heritiera and Sonneratia also important constituents of the mangroves. We [...]

Seismic observation of tsunami at island broadband stations

Kiwamu Nishida, Takuto Maeda, Yoshio Fukao

Published: 2018-10-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Previous studies have reported seismic observations of tsunami recorded at island broadband stations. Coastal loading by the tsunami can explain them. For further quantification, we model tsunami propagation assuming an axisymmetric structure: a conical island with a flat ocean floor. The total tsunami wavefield can be represented by superposition between an incident tsunami wave and the [...]

The effect of wind stress anomalies and location in driving Pacific Subtropical cells and tropical climate

Giorgio Graffino, Riccardo Farneti, Fred Kucharski, et al.

Published: 2018-03-12
Subjects: Climate, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The importance of subtropical and extratropical zonal wind stress on Pacific Subtropical Cells (STCs) strength is assessed through several idealized numerical experiments performed with a global ocean model. Different zonal wind stress anomalies are employed, and their intensity is strengthened or weakened with respect to the climatological value throughout a suite of simulations. Strengthened [...]

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