Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Linking the oxygen-17 compositions of water and carbonate reference materials using infrared absorption spectroscopy of carbon dioxide

Justin Chaillot, Samir Kassi, Thibault Clauzel, et al.

Published: 2024-04-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Joint measurements of the 18O/16O and 17O/16O ratios of carbonate minerals and waters are increasingly used to investigate various geochemical, physical and biological processes. Diverse analytical methods, each of them technically challenging in one way or another, have been developed or refined in recent years to measure oxygen-17 anomalies (Δ17O) with instrumental precisions of 10 ppm or [...]

A hybrid approach to enhance streamflow simulation in data-constrained Himalayan basins: Combining the Glacio-Hydrological Degree-Day Model and Recurrent Neural Networks

Dinesh Joshi, Rijan Bhakta Kayastha, Kundan Lal Shrestha, et al.

Published: 2024-04-12
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Glacio-hydrological Degree-day Model (GDM) is a distributed model but prone to uncertainties due to its conceptual nature, parameter estimation, and limited data in the Himalayan basins. To enhance accuracy without sacrificing interpretability, we propose a hybrid model, GDM-RNNs, combining GDM with Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs). Three RNN types (Simple RNN, GRU, LSTM) are integrated with [...]

Part 1: Anthropocene Series/Epoch: stratigraphic context and justification of rank The Anthropocene Epoch and Crawfordian Age: proposals by the Anthropocene Working Group

Colin Neil Waters, Simon Turner, Zhisheng An, et al.

Published: 2024-04-12
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) has concluded that the Anthropocene represents geological reality and should be linked with the plethora of stratigraphic proxies that initiate or show marked perturbations at around the 1950s, and should be defined using a Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP). We propose formalizing the Anthropocene as series/epoch, terminating the Holocene [...]

Part 2: Descriptions of the proposed Crawford Lake GSSP and supporting SABSs. The Anthropocene Epoch and Crawfordian Age: proposals by the Anthropocene Working Group

Colin Neil Waters, Simon Turner, Zhisheng An, et al.

Published: 2024-04-12
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This part of the Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) submission proposes that the base of the Anthropocene should be defined as series/epoch, terminating the Holocene Series/Epoch with a single Crawfordian stage/age using a Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) in an annually varved Crawford Lake core, Ontario, Canada, defined at 17.5 cm in core CRA23-BC-1F-B at the base of the dark [...]

Late Holocene relative sea-level records from coral microatolls at Sentosa, Singapore

Fangyi Tan, Benjamin Horton, Ke Lin, et al.

Published: 2024-04-11
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Late Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) data are important to understand the processes driving RSL change, but there is a lack of precise RSL data from the Sunda Shelf. Here, we produced the first Late Holocene RSL record from coral microatolls at Siloso Point in Sentosa, Singapore, demonstrating for the first time the utility of Diploastrea heliopora microatolls as sea-level indicators. We [...]

FLOWIDER 1.0: a web-based interface to track flood-season water levels of large rivers of India’s Gangetic plains

S Ramya Roopa, Nachiket Kelkar

Published: 2024-04-08
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Accessing and analysing flood-season water level data is crucial for monitoring riverine biodiversity and ecosystems. The Gangetic plains are among the largest river floodplains in the world. Temporal flood-season water level data for rivers of the Gangetic basin in India, though available in the public domain, are often scattered across web-based sources and recorded in non-translatable formats. [...]

Evaluation for the Impacts of Numerical Advection Schemes and Turbulence Modeling on Gray-Zone Simulation of a Squall Line

Jianan Chen, Xiaoming Shi

Published: 2024-04-05
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

With increasing computational power, atmospheric simulations have approached the gray zone resolutions where energetic turbulent eddies are partly resolved. The representation of turbulence in the gray zone is challenging and sensitive to the choices of turbulence models and numerical advection schemes. Some numerical advection schemes are designed with numerical dissipation to suppress [...]

Geostratigraphic mapping of the intrusive Valentine Domes on the Moon

Javier Eduardo Suarez Valencia, Angelo Pio Rossi

Published: 2024-04-05
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Lunar intrusive igneous rocks have not been widely studied in the past; this is related to their rare occurrence in the surface of the Moon, and the difficulty to identify them. Most of the known structures of this type were discovered with telescopic images and were identified as intrusive domes, which are characterized by their oval shape, low slope, and subtle effect in the topography. We [...]

Breaking internal waves on sloping topography: connecting parcel displacements to overturn size, interior-boundary exchanges, and mixing

Victoria Whitley, Jacob O. Wenegrat

Published: 2024-04-05
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Internal waves impinging on sloping topography can generate mixing through the formation of near-bottom bores and overturns in what has been called the `internal swash' zone. Here we investigate the mixing generated during these breaking events, and the subsequent ventilation of the bottom boundary layer, across a realistic non-dimensional parameter space for the ocean using three-dimensional [...]

A labeling intercomparison of retrogressive thaw slumps by a diverse group of domain experts

Ingmar Nitze, Jurjen van der Sluijs, Sophia Barth, et al.

Published: 2024-04-05
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Deep-learning (DL) models have become increasingly beneficial for the detection of retrogressive thaw slumps (RTS) in the permafrost domain. However, comparing accuracy metrics is challenging due to unstandardized labeling guidelines. To address this, we conducted an experiment with 12 international domain experts from a broad range of scientific backgrounds. Using 3m PlanetScope multispectral [...]

Estimating microphysical properties of ice clouds for climate modeling and remote sensing applications

Ehsan Erfani

Published: 2024-04-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Ice clouds pose crucial challenges in climate model simulations and remote sensing retrievals due to complicated mechanisms of ice cloud formation that span from micro scale to planetary wave scale. Despite numerous attempts to parameterize these processes, many questions remain unanswered. This technical note provides a summary of the most common and recent studies on ice clouds and compiles [...]

Development of a Snow Growth Model for Rimed Snowfall

Ehsan Erfani, David Mitchell

Published: 2024-04-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A snow growth model for rimed snowfall (SGMR) was developed based on the growth processes of vapor deposition, aggregation, and riming. The SGMR is initialized by radar reflectivity (Z) at the cloud top and thereafter simulates the vertical evolution of size spectra. The SGMR is based on the zeroth- and second-moment conservation equations with respect to mass, and thus conserves the number [...]

Progress in Understanding North American Monsoon Using a Climate Model

Ehsan Erfani, David Mitchell

Published: 2024-04-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The North American Monsoon is a seasonal shift in the large-scale circulation that supplies 60-80% of annual rainfall in northwestern Mexico and 30-40% in the US southwest. Regional climate models have shown that summer precipitation prediction over North America is the poorest in the Monsoon region. Most climate models do not account for a crucial mechanism of Monsoon: the boundary layer [...]

Improving Subsidence Modelling of Different Depth Domains in the Mekong Delta

Philip S. J. Minderhoud, Artur Guzy, Selena Baldan, et al.

Published: 2024-03-31
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Mekong delta, one of the largest deltas in the world, is densely populated and important for food production. As the delta plain is lowly elevated, less than a meter on average above local sea level, it is vulnerable to sea-level rise and land subsidence. The delta experiences high rates of natural compaction at its coast) while human activities associated with land-use change , urbanisation [...]

Explaining land subsidence variation along the north coast of Java for Semarang and Pekalongan, Indonesia

Thaem Mous, Bastien van Veen, Reinier Oost, et al.

Published: 2024-03-31
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This study investigates the significant land subsidence in the cities of Semarang and Pekalongan on the north coast of Java. High land subsidence rates of several cm up to dm per year have being reported, directly contributing to relative sea-level rise. This research uses PS-InSAR data to analyze the spatial and temporal variations in subsidence and identify its causes, which are expected to be [...]

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