Filtering by Subject: Earth Sciences

Stationary surface waves and antidunes in dense pyroclastic density currents

Pete Rowley, Guido Giordano, Aurora Silleni, et al.

Published: 2023-03-28
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Sedimentology, Volcanology

Stationary antidunes are a product of critical flow in open channel systems, but with poor preservation potential. They are related to the existence of stationary surface waves in the overriding current, but their existence in the dense pyroclastic density current regime has been unrecognized to date. Experiments presented here demonstrate that surface waves in simulated dense pyroclastic density [...]

Bayesian estimation of nonlinear centroid moment tensors using multiple seismic data sets

Mahdi Hamidbeygi, Hannes Vasyura-Bathke, Jan Dettmer, et al.

Published: 2023-03-27
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

Centroid moment tensor (CMT) parameters of earthquakes are routinely estimated to gain information on structures and regional tectonics. However, for small earthquakes (M<4), it is still challenging to determine CMTs due to the lack of high-quality waveform data. In this study, we propose to improve solutions for small earthquakes by incorporating multiple seismic data types in Bayesian joint [...]

Linking the core heat content to Earth's accretion history

Vincent Clesi, Renaud Deguen

Published: 2023-03-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology

In this study we use a parameterized model of differentiation in a magma ocean setting, in which the magma ocean depth evolves during accretion, to predict the composition of the primordial core. We couple this chemical model to a thermal evolution model of the accreting metal to estimate the Earth's core heat content at the end of its formation. We find geochemically consistent models. All these [...]

N-S versus E-W extension in the Tibetan plateau: Are they driven by the same dynamics?

Giridas maiti, Arnab Roy, Nibir Mandal

Published: 2023-03-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The tectonic history of the Himalaya-Tibet Mountain Range records two important extensional tectonic events: 1) N-S extension in the Himalaya-Tibet transition zone, and 2) E-W extension in the southern and central Tibet, manifested in the form of east-west and north-south striking normal faults, respectively. The N-S extensional event (~22 Ma) started to commence earlier than the E-W extension [...]

“you just look at rocks, and have beards” Perceptions of geology from the UK: a qualitative analysis from an online survey.

Steven Leslie Rogers, Sam Giles, Natasha Joanne Dowey, et al.

Published: 2023-03-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Higher Education

In the last few decades, Geology courses, particularly in the Global North have seen a decline in student enrolment. Geologists have linked this downturn to a lack of exposure to the subject at school and college level. This work seeks to understand the public’s relationship with Geology and draws on over 5000 open-ended question responses to a survey disseminated in 2021. The survey asked both [...]

Can homogeneous nucleation resolve the inner core nucleation paradox?

Alfred Wilson, Dario Alfè, Andrew Walker, et al.

Published: 2023-03-24
Subjects: Condensed Matter Physics, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Mineral Physics, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Mineral Physics

Stochastic properties of coastal flooding events -- Part 2: Probabilistic analysis

Byungho Kang, Rusty Feagin, Thomas Huff, et al.

Published: 2023-03-23
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering

Low-intensity but high-frequency coastal flooding, also known as nuisance flooding, can negatively affect low-lying coastal communities with potentially large socioeconomic effects. This flooding also can greatly affect post-storm coastal dune recovery and reduce the long-term resilience of the back-barrier ecosystem. Recent analytical work has hypothesized that these frequent flooding events are [...]

The Effect of Preferential Nucleation Sites on the Distribution of Secondary Mineral Precipitates

Mohammad Masoudi, Mohammad Nooraiepour, Helge Hellevang

Published: 2023-03-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences

In the process of mineral nucleation and growth, substrate surface properties and substrate types introduce favorable areas where nucleation events are more likely to occur. The preferential sites for mineral nucleation exist because of the lower interfacial free energy between the precipitating phase and the substrate. In this work, we used a pore-scale Lattice Boltzmann (LB)-based reactive [...]

Precipitation-induced Geometry Evolution during Reactive Transport: Experimental and Numerical Insights into Stochastic Dynamics of Mineral Growth

Mohammad Nooraiepour, Mohammad Masoudi, Helge Hellevang

Published: 2023-03-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences

Crystal nucleation, precipitation, and growth during a reactive fluid flow and solute transport are critical in many natural and industrial systems. Mineral growth is a prime example where (geo)chemical reactions give rise to geometry evolution in porous media. Motivated by the importance of incorporating stochastic dynamics of nucleation, crystallization, and growth kinetics in studying a [...]

The rise of preprints in Earth Sciences

Olivier Pourret, Daniel Enrique Ibarra

Published: 2023-03-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Short communication highlighting the rise of preprints in Earth Sciences.

Stratigraphy and morphogenesis of Pleistocene coral reefs at Tambolaka (Sumba Island, Indonesia)

Gino de Gelder, Tubagus Solihuddin, Dwi Amanda Utami, et al.

Published: 2023-03-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences

The fossil record of Quaternary reef systems, as expressed in uplifted regions by sequences of stacked terraces, has been extensively used to either understand their morphodynamics, or to unravel sea level variations. Yet, because these two aspects are intimately linked, Quaternary reef analysis is often underdetermined because the analysis often focuses on single sequences, along one-dimensional [...]

Ferdinand von Hochstetter’s November 1860 Folio of New Zealand survey data and the location of the Pink and White Terraces

Rex Bunn, Dr Sascha Nolden

Published: 2023-03-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology

This research utilises Ferdinand von Hochstetter’s unpublished November 1860 Folio of survey data from the first major terrestrial topographical and geological survey in New Zealand. The Folio data enable the reconstruction of the survey across the North Island to Lake Rotomahana, with unique bearings to the lost Pink and White Terraces. Originally prepared for the purposes of cartographic [...]

Paleoenvironmental implications of Deccan volcanism relative to the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction: evidence from the ‘red bole’ record

Nikhil Sharma, Thierry Adatte, Torsten Vennemann, et al.

Published: 2023-03-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) have been widely studied over the past decades due to their likely link to mass extinction events. Previous work involving U-Pb zircon dating of the Deccan lava flows indicates that the main phase-2 began 250 Ka before the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction boundary and continued into the early Danian, suggesting a cause-and-effect relationship. Closer to [...]

Complex rupture evolution of the 2007 Martinique earthquake: a non-double-couple event in the Caribbean Sea

Kenta Ohara, Yuji Yagi, Ryo Okuwaki

Published: 2023-03-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A large non-double-couple component of a tectonic earthquake indicates that its rupture likely was complex and likely involved multiple faults. Detailed source models of such earthquakes can add to our understanding of earthquake source complexity. The 2007 Martinique earthquake in the Caribbean Sea is one of the largest recent earthquakes with a known large non-double-couple component. It was an [...]

Vulnerability of Firn to Hydrofracture: Poromechanics Modeling

Yue Meng, Riley Culberg, Ching-Yao Lai

Published: 2023-03-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences

On the Greenland Ice Sheet, hydrofracture connects the supraglacial and subglacial hydrologic systems, coupling surface runoff dynamics and ice velocity. Over the last two decades, the growth of low-permeability ice slabs in the firn above the equilibrium line has expanded Greenland’s runoff zone, but the vulnerability of these regions to hydrofracture is still poorly understood. [...]


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