Filtering by Subject: Earth Sciences

Accuracy of UAV mapping of Natura 2000 forest, wetland and grassland habitats: Do we need more seasons or more spectral bands?

Petra Šímová, Jiří Prošek, Petr Klápště, et al.

Published: 2023-09-22
Subjects: Biodiversity, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences

Mapping and monitoring of Natura 2000 habitats (Habitat Directive 92/43/EEC) is one of the key activities to ensure the protection of natural habitats in Europe. Remote sensing can help to acquire high-quality maps of the distribution and conservation status of Natura 2000 habitats, for example through classifying multispectral data. However, due to the high number of habitats (classes) [...]

Omnivariant Generalized Least Squares Regression: Theory, Geochronological Applications, and Making the Case for Reconciled Δ47 calibrations

Mathieu Daëron, Pieter Vermeesch

Published: 2023-09-22
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry

Least-squares regression methods are mathematically powerful, conceptually and computationally simple, and widely used in many fields. However, none of the commonly-used flavors of least-squares regression, such as York regression or Generalized Least Squares (GLS), take into account the full set of covariances between all observed (x,y) values. Here we describe the Omnivariant Generalized Least [...]

Messages from the past; the petroglyphs of El Hierro Island

Mario Guglielmi, Valentin Rudolf Troll, Joerg Joerg Foest, et al.

Published: 2023-09-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Ancient cultures have frequently made use of stone surfaces to carve and engrave symbols, letters and messages for others. These petroglyphs usually have a lasting character and are frequently preserved well beyond the survival of the culture that produced the petroglyphs. In this article we focus on the written and pictorial testimony of the pre-Hispanic era of the island of El Hierro [...]

Catchment characterization: current descriptors, knowledge gaps and future opportunities

Larisa Tarasova, Sebastian Gnann, Soohyun Yang, et al.

Published: 2023-09-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences

An ability to describe hydrologically relevant differences between places is at the core of our science. A common way to characterize hydrological catchments is to use descriptors that summarize important physical aspects of the system, often by aggregating heterogeneous geospatial data into a single number. Such descriptors aim to capture various facets of catchment functioning and structure, [...]

The 2021 La Palma eruption; social dilemmas resulting from living close to an active volcano

Valentin Rudolf Troll, Meritxell Aulinas Junca, Juan Carlos Carracedo, et al.

Published: 2023-09-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Damage and destruction caused by the 2021 eruption of the Tajogaite volcano on La Palma was unprecedented relative to other historical eruptions of the last century (1909, 1949, 1971, 2011) in the Canary Islands. The devastation caused by the eruption was not a result of eruption magnitude, which was only marginally larger than other historical events, but instead of increasing vulnerability due [...]

Shifting institutional culture to develop climate solutions with Open Science

Julia Stewart Lowndes, Anna Holder, Emily Markowitz, et al.

Published: 2023-09-20
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Reactive iron as an important reservoir of marine organic carbon over geological timescales

Yunru Chen, Liang Dong, Weikang Sui, et al.

Published: 2023-09-20
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Microbiology

Reactive iron (FeR) has been suggested to serve as a semi-persistent sink of organic carbon (OC) in surface marine sediments, where approximately 10-20% of total OC (TOC) is associated with FeR (FeR-OC). However, the persistence of FeR-OC on geological timescales remains poorly constrained. Here, we retrieved FeR-OC records in two long sediment cores of the northern South China Sea spanning [...]

Antarctic Geothermal Heat Flow, Crustal Conductivity and Heat Production Inferred From Seismological Data

James Alexander Nicholas Hazzard, Fred D. Richards

Published: 2023-09-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Geothermal heat flow is a key parameter in governing ice dynamics, via its influence on basal melt and sliding, englacial rheology, and erosion. It is expected to exhibit significant lateral variability across Antarctica. Despite this, surface heat flow derived from Earth's interior remains one of the most poorly constrained parameters controlling ice-sheet evolution. To obtain a continent-wide [...]

Continental scale hydrostratigraphy: basin-scale testing of alternative data-driven approaches

Danielle Tijerina-Kreuzer, Jackson Swilley, Hoang Tran, et al.

Published: 2023-09-11
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Integrated hydrological modeling is an effective method for understanding interactions between parts of the hydrologic cycle, quantifying water resources, and furthering knowledge of hydrologic processes. However, these models are dependent on robust and accurate datasets that physically represent spatial characteristics as model inputs. This study evaluates multiple data-driven approaches for [...]

Machine Learning in Petrology: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives

Maurizio Petrelli

Published: 2023-09-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The present manuscript reports on the state-of-the-art and future perspectives of Machine Learning (ML) in Petrology. To do that, it first introduces the basics of ML, including definitions, core concepts, and applications. Then, it starts reviewing the state-of-the-art of ML in petrology. Established applications mainly concern clustering, dimensionality reduction, classification, and [...]

A Cascadia Slab Model from Receiver Functions

Wasja Bloch, Michael G. Bostock, Pascal Audet

Published: 2023-09-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

We map the characteristic signature of the subducting Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates along the entire Cascadia forearc from northern Vancouver Island, Canada to Cape Mendocino in northern California, USA, using teleseismic receiver functions. The subducting oceanic crustal complex, possibly including subcreted material, is parameterized by three horizons capable of generating mode-converted waves: [...]

Recent methane surges reveal heightened emissions from tropical inundated areas

Xin Lin, Shushi Peng, Philippe Ciais, et al.

Published: 2023-09-05
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences

Using convex optimization to efficiently apportion tracer and pollutant sources from point concentration observations

Richard Barnes, Alex George Lipp

Published: 2023-09-05
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Mathematics

Rivers transport elements, minerals, chemicals, and pollutants produced in their upstream basins. A sample from a river is a mixture of all of its upstream sources, making it challenging to pinpoint the contribution from each individual source. Here, we show how a nested sample design and convex optimization can be used to efficiently unmix downstream samples of a well-mixed, conservative tracer [...]

Imaging subduction, collision, and extension in northern Borneo: Constraints from receiver function

Amy Gilligan, David Cornwell, Nicholas Rawlinson, et al.

Published: 2023-09-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

Northern Borneo (Sabah) has a complex geological history, having experienced multiple episodes of subduction, magmatism, uplift, subsidence, and extension since the Mesozoic. This includes the subduction of the proto-South China Sea beneath what is now the northwestern margin of Sabah, which terminated ~21 Ma; a postulated later phase of northward subduction of the Celebes Sea plate, which [...]

The Role of Continental Heterogeneity on the Evolution of Continental Margin Topography at Subduction Zones

Antoniette Greta Grima, Thorsten W. Becker

Published: 2023-09-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

The nature of the overriding plate plays a major role in shaping subduction zone processes. In particular, the highly heterogeneous continental lithosphere modulates intra-plate tectonics and the surface evolution of our planet. However, the role of continental heterogeneity is relatively under-explored for the dynamics of subduction models. We investigate the influence of rheological and density [...]


You can search by:

  • Title
  • Keywords
  • Author Name
  • Author Affiliation