Filtering by Subject: Earth Sciences

Convergence in simulating global soil organic carbon by structurally different models after data assimilation

Feng Tao, Benjamin Z. Houlton, Yuanyuan Huang, et al.

Published: 2023-11-20
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences

The current generation of biogeochemical models produce large uncertainty in carbon-climate feedback projections. Structural differences in these models have been identified as a major source of inter-model uncertainties when simulating soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics worldwide. However, parameterization could also play a role, particularly when common observational data are used to constrain [...]

Evidence that seismic anisotropy captures upstream palaeo ice fabric, with implications on present day deformation at Whillans Ice Stream, Antarctica

Justin Leung, Thomas Samuel Hudson, John-Michael Kendall, et al.

Published: 2023-11-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Understanding deformation and slip at ice streams, which are responsible for 90% of Antarctic ice loss, is vital for accurately modelling large-scale ice flow. Ice preferred crystal orientation fabric (COF) has a first-order effect on ice stream deformation. For the first time, we use shear-wave splitting (SWS) measurements of basal icequakes at Whillans Ice Stream (WIS), Antarctica, to determine [...]

Downsystem Grain-Size Trends and Mass Balance of an Ancient Wave-Influenced Sediment Routing System: Middle Jurassic Brent Delta, Northern North Sea, Offshore UK and Norway

Ikenna Okwara, Gary J Hampson, Alexander C Whittaker, et al.

Published: 2023-11-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

We reconstruct upsystem-to-downsystem grain-size variations in the sediment routing systems of the data-rich Middle Jurassic Brent Group of the northern North Sea, using published stratigraphic, thickness, palaeogeographic, provenance and age constraints combined with representative core and wireline-log data. Facies associations provide a textural proxy for gravel, sand and mud grain-size [...]

Helium, carbon and nitrogen isotope evidence for slab influence on volcanic gas emissions at Rabaul caldera, Papua New Guinea

Brendan T. McCormick Kilbride, Peter H. Barry, Tobias P Fischer, et al.

Published: 2023-11-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The chemical and isotopic composition of the gases emitted by subduction zone volcanoes can provide insights into the origin of magmatic volatiles. In volcanic arcs, magmatic volatiles and therefore emitted gases can be supplied from the mantle, the subducting slab, or the rocks of the arc crust. Determining the relative contributions of these distinct sources is important for understanding the [...]

Looking upstream: analyzing the protection of the drainage area of Amazon rivers

Rosane Barbosa Lopes Cavalcante, Ayan Santos Fleischmann, PAULO ROGENES MONTEIRO PONTES

Published: 2023-11-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

In the Amazon, aquatic ecosystems provide essential ecosystem services, including transportation, food, and livelihoods for millions of species. Land use changes and management impact these ecosystem services and these impacts are not limited to the specific areas where they occur but propagate downstream along the drainage network. However, assessment of the accumulated human footprint upstream [...]

ACCE DTP EDI Report 2023

Rachael Hannah McLaughlin

Published: 2023-11-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Education, Environmental Sciences, Higher Education

Underrepresentation of minoritised and historically disadvantaged groups is prevalent in PhD recruitment, particularly in environmental sciences. The environmental science focussed ‘Adapting to the Challenges of a Changing Environment’ Doctoral Training Partnership (ACCE DTP) was awarded funding from the Natural Environment Research Council for an EDI-centred project. This project aimed to [...]

Transgression–regression cycles drive correlations in Ediacaran–Cambrian rock and fossil records

Daniel C Segessenman, Shanan E Peters

Published: 2023-11-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Statistical Methodology, Statistics and Probability, Stratigraphy

Strata of the Ediacaran Period (635–538.8 Ma) yield the oldest known fossils of complex, macroscopic organisms in the geologic record. These “Ediacaran-type” macrofossils (known as the Ediacaran biota) first appear in mid-Ediacaran strata, experience an apparent decline through the terminal Ediacaran, and directly precede the Cambrian (538.8–485.4 Ma) radiation of animals. Existing hypotheses for [...]

Petrological Evolution and Mass Redistribution in Basaltic Fault Zones: An Example from the Faroe Islands, North Atlantic Igneous Province

Bob Bamberg, Marc Reichow, Richard Walker, et al.

Published: 2023-11-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Fault rock petrology exerts an important control on the permeability structure and mechanical properties of fault zones. Slip-related deformation on upper-crustal faults in basaltic rocks is closely associated with fluid-rock interaction, altering the distribution of physical properties within the fault. Here we present quantitative descriptions of the geochemical and petrological evolution of [...]

Deep Learning for Deep Earthquakes: Insights from OBS Observations of the Tonga Subduction Zone

Ziyi Xi, Songqiao Shawn Wei, Weiqiang Zhu, et al.

Published: 2023-11-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Applications of machine learning in seismology have greatly improved our capability of detecting earthquakes in large seismic data archives. Most of these efforts have been focused on continental shallow earthquakes, but here we introduce an integrated deep-learning-based workflow to detect deep earthquakes recorded by a temporary array of ocean-bottom seismographs (OBSs) and land-based stations [...]

Excited state lifetime of electron trapping centres in alkali feldspars

Svenja Riedesel, Mayank Jain

Published: 2023-11-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Mineral Physics, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

The development of the infrared stimulated luminescence (IRPL) signal enables the direct non-destructive probing of the trapped electron population in feldspars. Whilst IRPL offers great perspectives for luminescence dating, it also enables detailed, site-selective measurements of the defects emitting IRPL at 880 nm (IRPL880) and 955 nm (IRPL955), allowing us to advance our understanding of the [...]

Sounding out the river: Seismic and hydroacoustic monitoring of bedload transport in an alluvial river

Bronwyn Matthews, Mark Naylor, Hugh Sinclair, et al.

Published: 2023-11-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Seismological observations provide a non-invasive and continuous means of indirect measurement of fluvial bedload transport (i.e. the transport of coarse granular material, as a function of water depth, in rivers). However, a significant challenge remains in independently characterising the seismic signature of bedload transport from other sources, such as turbulence. Previous research suggested [...]

PyIRoGlass: An Open-Source, Bayesian MCMC Algorithm for Fitting Baselines to FTIR Spectra of Basaltic-Andesitic Glasses

Sarah Christine Shi, William Henry Towbin, Terry Plank, et al.

Published: 2023-11-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Quantifying volatile concentrations in magmas is critical for understanding magma storage, phase equilibria, and eruption processes. We present PyIRoGlass, an open-source Python package for quantifying H$_2$O and CO$_2$ species concentrations in the transmission FTIR spectra of basaltic to andesitic glasses. We leverage a database of naturally degassed melt inclusions and back-arc basin basalts [...]

Petrographic and geochemical evidence for a complex magmatic plumbing system beneath Bagana volcano, Papua New Guinea

Joshua Robert Brown, Iris Buisman, Maria Paula Castellanos Melendez, et al.

Published: 2023-10-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Volcanology

Bagana is a persistently active stratovolcano located on Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea. Characteristic activity consists of prolonged lava effusion over months to years, with occasional shifts to explosive vulcanian or subplinian eruptions which threaten surrounding communities. Satellite observations have shown that Bagana is a major SO2 emitter, particularly during eruptive intervals. [...]

Pacific shoreline erosion and accretion patterns controlled by El Niño/Southern Oscillation

Kilian Vos, Mitchell Dean Harley, Ian L Turner, et al.

Published: 2023-10-27
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Climate, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In the Pacific Basin, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of interannual climate variability, driving substantial changes in oceanographic forcing and impacting Pacific coastlines. Yet, how sandy coasts respond to these basin-scale changes has to date been limited to a few long-term beach monitoring sites, predominantly on developed coasts. Here we use 38 years of Landsat [...]

Testing the applicability of standardised growth curves (SGC) for chemically heterogeneous single-grain feldspars from the Atacama Desert, Chile

Linda Maßon, Svenja Riedesel, Anja Zander, et al.

Published: 2023-10-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences

The Atacama Desert is generally considered the driest non-polar desert on Earth and is therefore an ideal study area for exploring the water and biota free endmember of Earth’s Critical Zone (ECZ). Single grain (SG) luminescence dating has successfully identified processes in the ECZ. However, SG luminescence dating of Atacama Desert feldspars is challenging and time consuming since only a small [...]


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