Filtering by Subject: Earth Sciences

Progression of the surge in the Negribreen Glacier System from two years of ICESat-2 measurements

Thomas Trantow, Ute C. Herzfeld

Published: 2023-10-08
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The unique measurement capabilities of ICESat-2 allow high spatiotemporal resolution of complex ice-dynamic processes that occur during a surge. Detailed and precise mapping of height changes on surge glaciers has previously escaped observations from space due to limited resolution of space-borne altimeter data and the surface characteristics of glaciers during surge such as heavy crevassing. [...]

The importance of anisotropic viscosity in numerical models for olivine textures in shear and subduction deformations

Yijun Wang, Ágnes Király, Clinton C Conrad, et al.

Published: 2023-10-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Olivine lattice preferred orientation (LPO), or texture, forms in relation to deformation mechanisms such as dislocation creep and can be observed in the upper mantle as seismic anisotropy. Olivine is also mechanically anisotropic, meaning that it responds to stresses differently depending on the direction of the stress. Understanding the interplay between anisotropic viscosity (AV) and LPO, and [...]

Monitoring surface deformation with spaceborne radar interferometry in landslide complexes: insights from the Brienz/Brinzauls slope instability, Swiss Alps

Andrea Manconi, Nina Jones, Simon Loew, et al.

Published: 2023-10-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences

We performed an extensive analysis of C-Band SAR datasets provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) satellites ERS-1/2, Envisat ASAR, and Sentinel-1 in the period 1992-2020 aiming at reconstructing the multi-decadal spatial and temporal evolution of the surface displacements at the Brienz/Brinzauls landslide complex, located in canton Graubünden (Switzerland). To this end, we analyzed about [...]

A shift in the Sr isotopic composition of the magmatic source triggering 2019 paroxysmal eruptions at Stromboli Volcano

Christian J. Renggli, Joachim Krause, Felix Genske, et al.

Published: 2023-10-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The persistent volcanic activity of Stromboli Volcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy, is interrupted by paroxysmal eruptions on a decadal interval. In 2019, two strong paroxysms on July 3rd and August 28th, ended a more than a decade long period of regular strombolian activity. During normal strombolian activity the volcano erupts highly porphyritic scoria and lava (HP)20 with a shoshonitic basalt [...]

Complementary classifications of aeolian dunes based on morphology, dynamics, and fluid mechanics

Sylvain Courrech du Pont, David Michael Rubin, Clément Narteau, et al.

Published: 2023-10-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Sciences, Sedimentology

Dunes form where winds blow over a bed of mobile sediment grains – conditions that are common in our solar system. On Earth, dunes abound in arid continental interiors and along sandy coastlines. Dune fields have also been recognized on other planetary bodies, including Venus, Mars, Saturn’s moon Titan, and Pluto. Despite the relatively basic conditions required for their formation, dunes adopt a [...]

Geological evidence confirms the staircase patterns of Earth’s rotation deceleration from the Neoproterozoic to the Mesozoic Era

He Huang, Chao Ma, Matthias Sinnesael, et al.

Published: 2023-10-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences

Due to tidal dissipation, the Earth’s rotation has been slowing down, but the past rates of this process remain subject of debate. Here we conducted a comprehensive cyclostratigraphic analysis of eight geological datasets to further constrain the Earth's rotation history from the Neoproterozoic to Mesozoic. Our results allow us to further test theoretical physical tidal models, and support a [...]

Revisiting oxygen-18 and clumped isotopes in planktic and benthic foraminifera

Mathieu Daëron, William Robert Gray

Published: 2023-09-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences

Foraminiferal isotopes are widely used to study past oceans, with different species recording conditions at different depths. Their δ18O values record both seawater oxygen-18 and temperature according to species-specific fractionation factors, while their Δ47 signatures likely depend only on temperature. We describe an open-source framework to collect/combine data relevant to foraminiferal [...]

The Balanced Billion

Ross Mitchell, David A.D. Evans

Published: 2023-09-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences

There is a mid-Proterozoic stretch of Earth’s history (roughly 1.9–0.9 Ga) called, non-affectionately, the “boring billion”. The moniker was first inspired several decades ago by the apparent absence of any significant carbon isotope anomalies and was linked to the relatively “boring” interval in between Earth’s broadly two-step pattern in atmospheric oxygenation. However, in light of (i) the [...]

No respite from permafrost-thaw impacts in absence of a global tipping point

Jan Nitzbon, Thomas Schneider von Deimling, Mehriban Aliyeva, et al.

Published: 2023-09-25
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Arctic permafrost, the largest non-seasonal component of Earth’s cryosphere, contains a significant climate-sensitive carbon pool. Its potential for loss due to climatic changes leading to a global tipping point, where thawing accelerates with disproportionate impacts, remains debated. Here, we provide an integrative perspective on this question, building on a cross-disciplinary meta-analysis of [...]

Accuracy of UAV mapping of Natura 2000 forest, wetland and grassland habitats: Do we need more seasons or more spectral bands?

Petra Šímová, Jiří Prošek, Petr Klápště, et al.

Published: 2023-09-22
Subjects: Biodiversity, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences

Mapping and monitoring of Natura 2000 habitats (Habitat Directive 92/43/EEC) is one of the key activities to ensure the protection of natural habitats in Europe. Remote sensing can help to acquire high-quality maps of the distribution and conservation status of Natura 2000 habitats, for example through classifying multispectral data. However, due to the high number of habitats (classes) [...]

Omnivariant Generalized Least Squares Regression: Theory, Geochronological Applications, and Making the Case for Reconciled Δ47 calibrations

Mathieu Daëron, Pieter Vermeesch

Published: 2023-09-22
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry

Least-squares regression methods are mathematically powerful, conceptually and computationally simple, and widely used in many fields. However, none of the commonly-used flavors of least-squares regression, such as York regression or Generalized Least Squares (GLS), take into account the full set of covariances between all observed (x,y) values. Here we describe the Omnivariant Generalized Least [...]

Messages from the past; the petroglyphs of El Hierro Island

Mario Guglielmi, Valentin Rudolf Troll, Joerg Joerg Foest, et al.

Published: 2023-09-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Ancient cultures have frequently made use of stone surfaces to carve and engrave symbols, letters and messages for others. These petroglyphs usually have a lasting character and are frequently preserved well beyond the survival of the culture that produced the petroglyphs. In this article we focus on the written and pictorial testimony of the pre-Hispanic era of the island of El Hierro [...]

Catchment characterization: current descriptors, knowledge gaps and future opportunities

Larisa Tarasova, Sebastian Gnann, Soohyun Yang, et al.

Published: 2023-09-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences

An ability to describe hydrologically relevant differences between places is at the core of our science. A common way to characterize hydrological catchments is to use descriptors that summarize important physical aspects of the system, often by aggregating heterogeneous geospatial data into a single number. Such descriptors aim to capture various facets of catchment functioning and structure, [...]

The 2021 La Palma eruption; social dilemmas resulting from living close to an active volcano

Valentin Rudolf Troll, Meritxell Aulinas Junca, Juan Carlos Carracedo, et al.

Published: 2023-09-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Damage and destruction caused by the 2021 eruption of the Tajogaite volcano on La Palma was unprecedented relative to other historical eruptions of the last century (1909, 1949, 1971, 2011) in the Canary Islands. The devastation caused by the eruption was not a result of eruption magnitude, which was only marginally larger than other historical events, but instead of increasing vulnerability due [...]

Shifting institutional culture to develop climate solutions with Open Science

Julia Stewart Lowndes, Anna Holder, Emily Markowitz, et al.

Published: 2023-09-20
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics


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