Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Atmospheric Sciences

Graph Characterization of Higher Order Structure in Atmospheric Chemical Reaction Mechanisms

Sam Silva, Mahantesh M Halappanavar

Published: 2024-02-13
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Other Applied Mathematics, Other Environmental Sciences

Atmospheric chemical reactions play an important role in air quality and climate change. While the structure and dynamics of individual chemical reactions are fairly well understood, the emergent properties of the entire atmospheric chemical system, which can involve many different species that participate in many different reactions, are not well described. In this work, we leverage [...]

Climate and Air Quality Impact of Using Ammonia as an Alternative Shipping Fuel

Anthony Y. H. Wong, Noelle Eckley Selin, Sebastian David Eastham, et al.

Published: 2024-02-07
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oil, Gas, and Energy

As carbon-free fuel, ammonia has been proposed as an alternative fuel to facilitate maritime decarbonization. Deployment of ammonia-powered ships is proposed as soon as 2024. However, emissions of NOx, NH3 and N2O resulting from ammonia combustion could cause impacts on air quality and climate. In this study, we assess whether and under what conditions switching to ammonia fuel might affect [...]

Daily global methane super-emitter detection and source identification with sub-daily tracking

Tobias A. de Jong, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Itziar Irakulis-Loitxate, et al.

Published: 2024-02-01
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oil, Gas, and Energy

We use the Shortwave Infrared bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite instruments to retrieve atmospheric methane enhancements with 750m resolution. We show that the three VIIRS instruments in orbit uniquely enhance the currently-employed capabilities of tracking methane super-emission events. The VIIRS instrument on Suomi-NPP and the TROPOMI instrument on [...]

Increasing anthropogenic emissions inconsistent with declining atmospheric mercury concentrations

Aryeh Feinberg, Noelle Eckley Selin, Christine F Braban, et al.

Published: 2024-01-30
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Anthropogenic activities emit ~2000 Mg yr-1 of the toxic heavy metal mercury (Hg) into the atmosphere, where it can be transported long distances and deposited to remote ecosystems. Existing global anthropogenic emissions inventories report increases in Northern Hemispheric (NH) Hg emissions during the last three decades, in contradiction with the observed decline in atmospheric Hg concentrations [...]

Inverse modeling of satellite observations shows that the wet tropics drive the 2010-2022 methane increase

Zhen Qu, Daniel J. Jacob, Anthony Bloom, et al.

Published: 2024-01-04
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate

Atmospheric methane concentrations rose rapidly over the past decade and surged in 2020-2022 but the causes are unclear. We find from inverse analysis of GOSAT satellite observations that global methane emissions increased from 500 to 550 Tg a-1 from 2010 to 2019 and surged to 570-590 Tg a-1 in 2020-2022. Concentrations of tropospheric OH (the main methane sink) show no long-term trend over [...]

FootNet: Development of a machine learning emulator of atmospheric transport

Tai-Long He, Nikhil Dadheech, Tammy M Thompson, et al.

Published: 2023-12-09
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Monitoring

There has been a proliferation of dense observing systems to monitor greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations over the past decade. Estimating emissions with these observations is often done using an atmospheric transport model to characterize the source-receptor relationship, which is commonly termed measurement ``footprint''. Computing and storing footprints using full-physics models is becoming [...]

Particulate nitrate photolysis as a possible driver of rising tropospheric ozone

Viral Shah, Christoph Keller, K. Emma Knowland, et al.

Published: 2023-10-20
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences

Tropospheric ozone is an air pollutant and a greenhouse gas whose anthropogenic production is limited principally by the supply of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from combustion. Tropospheric ozone in the northern hemisphere has been rising despite the flattening of NOx emissions in recent decades. Here we propose that this sustained increase could result from the photolysis of nitrate particles (pNO3-) [...]

Rano Kao & Ava Ranga Uka: Rapa Nui Report 2014

candace gossen

Published: 2023-10-10
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Fresh Water Studies

29 March 2014 Objective: Sampling and testing Rano Kao water depth, evaporation and volume. Compare with previous results from 2005, 2008 and 2014 coring expeditions and detect the rate of change in lake water evaporation as compared to Global Meteoric Water Line.

Approaching coherent turbulence and the roll-cell transition with Lagrangian coherent structures and objective fluxes

Nikolas Olson Aksamit, Marwan Katurji, Jiawei Zhang

Published: 2023-10-09
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences

We present the first analysis of objective and material vortices in Large Eddy Simulations of atmospheric boundary layer turbulence. We extract rotating fluid features that maintain structural coherence over time for near-neutral, transitional, and convective boundary layers. In contrast to traditional analysis of coherent structures in turbulent boundary layers, we provide the first objective [...]

Site selection of desert solar farms based on heterogeneous sand flux

Guoshuai Li, Lihai Tan, Bao Yang, et al.

Published: 2023-10-09
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Geomorphology, Risk Analysis

Site selection for building solar farms in deserts is crucial and must consider the dune threats associated with sand flux, such as sand burial and dust contamination. Understanding the changes in sand flux can optimize the site selection of desert solar farms. Here we use the ERA5-Land hourly wind data with 0.1°×0.1° resolution to calculate the yearly sand flux from 1950 to 2022. The mean of [...]

Spaceborne assessment of the Soviet Union's role in the 1990s methane slowdown

Tai-Long He, Ryan J. Boyd, Daniel J. Varon, et al.

Published: 2023-10-04
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, amounting to 60% of the radiative forcing from CO2 since pre-industrial times based on emitted compound. Global atmospheric methane concentrations rose by 10-15 ppb/yr in the 1980s before abruptly slowing to 2-8 ppb/yr in the early 1990s. This period in the 1990s is known as the ``methane slowdown'' and has been attributed to the [...]

Temporal and Spatial Satellite Data Augmentation for Deep Learning-Based Rainfall Nowcasting

Özlem Baydaroğlu, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2023-10-03
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Climate change has been associated with alterations in precipitation patterns and increased vulnerability to floods and droughts. The need for improvements in forecasting and monitoring approaches has become imperative due to flash floods and severe flooding. Rainfall prediction is a challenging but critical issue owing to the complexity of atmospheric processes, the spatial and temporal [...]

TROPOMI/S5P sensitivity limits with respect to detection of NO2 plumes from seagoing ships

Solomiia Kurchaba, Artur Sokolovsky, Jasper van Vliet, et al.

Published: 2023-09-20
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Monitoring

The marine shipping industry is among the strong emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) -- a substance harmful to ecology and human health. Monitoring of emissions from shipping is a significant societal task. Currently, the only technical possibility to observe NO2 emission from seagoing ships on a global scale is using TROPOMI data. A range of studies reported that NO2 plumes from some individual [...]

Recent methane surges reveal heightened emissions from tropical inundated areas

Xin Lin, Shushi Peng, Philippe Ciais, et al.

Published: 2023-09-05
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences

A Review of the Interactions between Tropical Cyclones and Environmental Vertical Wind Shear

Rosimar Rios-Berrios, Peter Finocchio, Joshua Alland, et al.

Published: 2023-08-24
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences

Tropical cyclone (TC) structure and intensity are strongly modulated by interactions with deep-layer vertical wind shear (VWS)—the vector difference between horizontal winds at 200 and 850 hPa. This paper presents a comprehensive review of more than a century of research on TC-VWS interactions. The literature broadly agrees that a TC vortex becomes vertically tilted, precipitation organizes into [...]

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