Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Climate

Epitomic Data for Community Land Model Standalone Simulations for Prognostic Analyses of Tropical Mountain Glaciation and Lake Temperature in Pre-Industrial, Last Glacial Maximum, and Extreme Glacial Climates

Nicholas Gray Heavens

Published: 2022-11-15
Subjects: Climate, Fresh Water Studies, Glaciology, Hydrology

Global climate models typically simulate climate at much larger spatial scales than tropical mountain glaciers and many of the world’s lakes. Yet some of the proxy data that can be used to validate models of past climate on land come from and are related to these geographic features. Validating global climate models using these proxies requires some method of downscaling global climate model [...]

North African dust absorbs less solar radiation than estimated by models and remote-sensing retrievals

Adeyemi A Adebiyi, Yue Huang, Bjørn H. Samset, et al.

Published: 2022-10-17
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate

Desert dust accounts for a large fraction of shortwave radiation absorbed by aerosols, which adds to the climate warming produced by greenhouse gases. However, it remains uncertain exactly how much shortwave radiation dust absorbs. We leverage in-situ measurements of dust single-scattering albedo to constrain absorption at mid-visible wavelength by North African dust, which accounts for [...]

Skilful forecasts of summer rainfall in the Yangtze River Basin from November

Philip Bett, Nick Dunstone, Nicola Golding, et al.

Published: 2022-10-10
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate

Variability in the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) brings the risk of heavy flooding or drought to the Yangtze River Basin, with potentially devastating impacts. Early forecasts of the likelihood of enhanced or reduced monsoon rainfall can enable better management of water and hydropower resources by decision-makers, supporting livelihoods and major economic and population centres across Eastern [...]

Deterministic icehouse and greenhouse climates throughout Earth history

Tyler Kukla, Kimberly V. Lau, Daniel Enrique Ibarra, et al.

Published: 2022-10-06
Subjects: Climate, Geochemistry

Some theories posit that icehouse (with polar ice sheets) and greenhouse (ice-free) states throughout Earth history are not deterministic, but bistable—both states may occur for the same level of radiative forcing. If correct, then the climate state that persists for millions of years can depend on which state already existed, giving the system a `memory’ effect. However, on these timescales the [...]

Characteristics of Dust Storms Generated by Trapped Waves in the Lee of Mountains

Amato Tomas Evan, William Porter, Rachel Clemsha, et al.

Published: 2022-09-29
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Dust storms are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere, yet the physical processes underlying dust emission and subsequent transport are not always understood, in-part due to the wide variety of meteorological processes that can generate high winds and dust. Here we use in-situ measurements and numerical modeling to demonstrate that vertically trapped atmospheric waves generated by air flowing over [...]

All aboard! Earth system investigations with the CH2O-CHOO TRAIN v1.0

Tyler Kukla, Daniel Enrique Ibarra, Kimberly V. Lau, et al.

Published: 2022-09-24
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Models of the carbon cycle and climate on geologic (>10^4 year) timescales have improved tremendously in the last 50 years due to parallel advances in our understanding of the Earth system and the increase in computing power to simulate its key processes. Despite these advances, balancing the Earth System's vast complexity with a model's computational expense is a primary challenge in model [...]

Rapid estimation of climate-air quality interactions in integrated assessment using a response surface model

Sebastian David Eastham, Erwan Monier, Daniel Rothenberg, et al.

Published: 2022-09-15
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Studies

Air quality and climate change are substantial and linked sustainability challenges, and there is a need for improved tools to assess the implications of addressing them in combination. High-fidelity chemistry-climate simulations can capture combined climate-air quality responses to policy change, but computational cost has prevented integration of accurate air quality impacts into integrated [...]

Plant Breeding Biomolecular Classification in Quantum Bayesianism (QBism) Physics-Informed Neural Network Architecture

Karriem A.J. Perry, Barbara S Keary

Published: 2022-08-31
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Climate, Other Statistics and Probability, Plant Sciences, Probability, Quantum Physics, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Soil Science, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, Sustainability, Systems Biology

In this brief communication, biomolecular plant breeding multi-classification inference is discussed when leveraging the advantages of Physics-informed Neural Network (PiNN) architecture. Albeit, the expected utility of Partial Differential Equation (PDE) inspired neural networks resides in its performance under limited data availability; a variety of neural network configurations result from PDE [...]

Meteorological Drivers of Resource Adequacy Failures in Current and High Renewable Western U.S. Power Systems

Srihari Sundar, Michael Craig, Ashley Payne, et al.

Published: 2022-08-31
Subjects: Climate, Meteorology, Power and Energy, Risk Analysis

Power system resource adequacy (RA), or its ability to continually balance supply and demand, underpins human and economic health. How meteorology affects RA, particularly with increasing penetrations of renewables, is poorly understood. We characterize large-scale circulation patterns that drive RA failures at increasing wind and solar penetrations by integrating power system and synoptic [...]

Much of Zero Emissions Commitment Occurs Before Reaching Net Zero Emissions

Charles D. Koven, Benjamin Sanderson, Abigail L. S. Swann

Published: 2022-08-25
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences

We explore the response of the Earth’s climate and carbon system to an idealized sequential addition and removal of CO2 to the atmosphere, following a symmetric and continuous emissions pathway, in contrast to the discontinuous emissions pathways that have largely informed our understanding of the climate response to net-zero and net-negative emissions to date. We find, using both an Earth [...]

Köppen meets Neural Network: Revision of the Köppen Climate Classification by Neural Networks

Ji Luo

Published: 2022-08-23
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Categorical Data Analysis, Climate, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Multivariate Analysis

Climate change and development of data-oriented methods are appealing for new climate classification schemes. Based on the most widely used Köppen-Geiger scheme, this article proposes a neural network based climate classification method from a data science perspective. In conventional schemes, empirically handcrafted rules are used to divide climate data into climate types, resulting in certain [...]

Thermal forcing expected to modulate convection in a mechanically forced stationary wave

William R. Boos, Salvatore Pascale

Published: 2022-08-16
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This is a reply to the comment by Lofverstrom and Thirumalai on our publication in Nature. That comment and this reply underwent peer review at Nature, and Nature declined to publish the exchange

Formation and reorganization timescales of aeolian landscapes

Andrew Gunn

Published: 2022-07-29
Subjects: Climate, Geomorphology, Stratigraphy

Landscapes created through sediment transport are shaped by the interaction of flow and form. In landscapes where wind is the agent of geomorphic work, this is clear at the small-scale; equilibrium dune morphology is linked to the wind climate and the supply of sediment. At larger scales, this linkage becomes ambiguous because the form of giant dunes and dune fields integrate long histories of [...]

A Technical Overview of the North Carolina ECONet

Sheila M. Saia, Sean P. Heuser, Myleigh D. Neill, et al.

Published: 2022-07-20
Subjects: Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Education, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Forest Management, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Plant Sciences

Regional weather networks–also referred to as mesonets–are imperative for filling in the spatial and temporal data gaps between nationally supported weather stations. The North Carolina Environment and Climate Observing Network (ECONet) fills this regional role; it is a mesoscale network of 44 (as of 2022) automated stations collecting 12 environmental variables every minute across North [...]

Advecting Superspecies: Efficiently Modeling Transport of Organic Aerosol with a Mass-Conserving Dimensionality Reduction Method

Patrick Obin Sturm, Astrid Manders, Ruud Janssen, et al.

Published: 2022-06-26
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The chemical transport model LOTOS-EUROS uses a volatility basis set (VBS) approach to represent the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. Inclusion of the VBS approximately doubles the dimensionality of LOTOS-EUROS and slows computation of the advection operator by a factor of two. This complexity limits SOA representation in operational forecasts. We develop a [...]

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